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in categories  works  3d  architecture  projects  permalink:  311   posted on 21.12.2016 18:25
From Yorik

Casa Min-Max

Esta casa custa R$ 55 000. Completa, com tudo.

This house costs BRL 55 000. Complete, with everything.

Como chegamos ate aqui?

Sempre nos incomodou o conceito de habitação "social". Como se habitação pura fosse outra coisa, como se a habitação "social" fosse uma exceção e não a regra (falamos em Brasil). Mas o que os livros chamam de habitação social é onde vive a maioria das pessoas. Então por que dar um nome especial ao que é o corriqueiro? Pois bem, daqui em diante trataremos apenas de habitação. Como deve ser. Digna e para todos.

How did we get here?

The concept of "social housing" always disturbed us. As if "pure" housing was something else, as if social housing was an exception to the rule (we are mainly talking about Brazil here). But what books call social housing is actually where most of the people live. Why give a special name to something that is common? From now on, we will only talk about housing. As it should be. Dignified and for anybody.

Este é uma reflexão nossa sobre o conceito de casa incremental, usado pelo arquiteto chileno Alejandro Aravena, que pode ser resumido assim: “Com um orçamento pela metade, em vez de fazer uma casa meio boa meio ruim, vamos fazer uma meia-casa boa, onde o morador possa completar a outra metade depois”.

Essa é a nossa jornada. Enquanto arquitetos e enquanto moradores. Enquanto pessoas que desejam uma cidade com oportunidades mais igualitárias para todos. Esse projeto foi feito para ser uma experiência real. Não apenas um projeto, mas como ele se comporta no dia a dia. O mais importante para isso é saber: quanto custa para fazer o que queremos e precisamos?

Qual o máximo que podemos fazer com um mínimo de custo? Quais seriam as soluções mais adaptadas aos financiamentos existentes? Encontrar o equilíbrio. Iniciar pelo orçamento.

This is a reflection about the incremental housing concept, used by Chilean architect Alejandro Aravena, that can be explained like this: "With half a budget, instead of doing a house that is half-good, half-bad, let's do half a good house, where the owner can do the other half later".

This is our journey. As architects and as dwellers. As people who want a city with more equal opportunities for eveybody. This project was thought to be a real experience. Not only as a project, but how it behaves day after day. The most important question for this to become real is: How much does it cost to do it the way we want?

What is the maximum we can do with a minimal cost? What are the solutions most adapted to existing financing options? Find the equilibrium. Begin from the budget.

Casa max-min

Nossa busca foi por uma solução urbana, pratica e de qualidade, que pudesse ser executada facilmente e que permitisse reduzir os custos iniciais para facilitar o financiamento. Partimos de duas ideias inspiradas pelo Aravena para montar o nosso projeto de meia casa "boa" e economizar custos:

  1. A casa pode ser aumentada
  2. Parte do acabamento é feita posteriormente

Esse projeto é um projeto piloto. Ele foi desenvolvido para ser o ponto de partida para outras ideias, ser adaptado caso a caso, terreno a terreno, família a família. É uma casa pensada para cidades, onde o terreno é caro.

Decidimos por utilizar um terreno de 70 m², que é pequeno, mas é um tamanho bem comum nos bairros mais periféricos de São Paulo e nas áreas que eram favelas antigamente. Podemos utilizar posteriormente terrenos maiores ou menores, mas construir em um terreno menor permite, em ultimo caso, um maior investimento no mesmo. Isso significa poder utilizar um terreno mais valorizado, com mais acesso aos equipamentos e facilidades urbanas. É importante lembrar que morar bem é feito 50% pela casa propriamente dita e 50% do local onde se mora.

Essa casa não é uma casa de interesse social, é uma casa para todos aqueles que estejam interessados em construir com qualidade economizando muito e estejam dispostos a fazer algumas concessões.

Ela tem, a princípio, 50m². Consideramos 50m² um bom custo-benefício, o que é muito relativo: para alguns pode ser pouco, mas muitas habitações são muito menores. O PMCMV (Programa Minha Casa Minha Vida) tinha como mínimo 41 m², mas muitos empreendimentos no centro da cidade de São Paulo possuem muito menos, mesmo os idealizados para pessoas de alta renda (na região central, uma construtora conhecida está, neste momento, vendendo apartamentos de 18m²).

Max-min house

Our search is for a urban, practical and quality solution, that can be easily executed and that allow to reduce the initial costs to facilitate the financing. We started from two ideas inspired by Aravena to build our "half a good house" project and reduce costs:

  1. The house can be expanded
  2. Part of the finishing can be done later

This is a pilot project. It is developed to be the starting point for other ideas, be adapted case by case, terrain by terrain, family by family. It is a house designed for cities, where the price of the land is high.

We started using a 70 m² terrain, which is small, but a very common size in peripheral neighbourhoods of São Paulo and areas that were favelas (slums) before. It is of course possible to use bigger terrains (or smaller), but using a small terrain gives a better investment. This means that it is possible to use a better terrain, more expensive, but localised closer to urban equipment and facilities like schools, shops, jobs, etc. It is important to keep in mind that "a good house" depends half on the house itself, half on where this house is situated.

This house is not social housing, it is a house for anybody interested in building something with quality, for a cheap price, and ready to make some concessions.

It has, in principle, 50 m². We consider 50 m² as a good quality-cost balance, which is of course very relative: For some it can feel small, but many housing units are much smaller. The PMCMV (Programa Minha Casa Minha Vida) program specified a minimum of 41 m², but many housing units in the centre of São Paulo have much less, even when targeting people with high income (in the central region, a known real-estate company is currently selling 18 m² units).

Um dos quartos pode abrir diretamente para o espaço exterior da frente, o que permite usar ele para trabalho (escritório, consultório, oficina, etc). A possibilidade de trabalhar em casa ajuda a reunir trabalho e moradia, que em cidades grandes ficam muito distantes um do outro, além de ampliar as opções de vida dos moradores.

O projeto inclui fundações já calculadas para que no futuro possua um andar superior, o que pode aumentá-lo para até 100m². Para isso, a laje já é recortada para a escada. A cobertura é desmontável e pode ser reaproveitada em cima do andar superior quando o mesmo for construído.

One of the rooms can open directly to the front yard, which allows to use it to work (as an office, consultancy cabinet, workshop, etc). This also helps to reunite working and living, which is big cities have become very distant one to the other. This also helps to give more life options to people living in the house.

The project has foundations already dimensioned to bear a future upper floor, which can raise the floor area up to 100m². The above slab is also already cut to allow the placing of a staircase. The roof is removable and can be reused above the upper floor when it gets built.

A cobertura também é descolada da laje, com ampla ventilação, para não transmitir o calor, melhorando o isolamento térmico.

The roof is also separated from the slab, with good ventilation, to not transmit the heat, which is the best possible thermal insulation.

Começamos o projeto dessa casa pelo orçamento, o qual pretendemos que esteja em constante evolução. Ela custa, em sua versão mínima porem completamente habitável, menos de R$ 55 000. Em conjunto com os arquivos de desenho do projeto, estamos disponibilizando um arquivo com a tabela do orçamento. Usamos como fonte o SINAPI, os preços da PMSP, do FDE-SP e outras fontes publicas, discriminadas a cada item. Todos esses campos podem ser trocados, permitindo que cada um pegue essa listagem em sua cidade e consiga saber quanto que uma casa como essa poderia custar. Para chegarmos a esse preço, usamos os preços mais altos que encontramos, o que significa que provavelmente ela custara menos que isso, mas queríamos evitar surpresas desagradáveis.

Com R$ 55 000, ela tem tudo que normalmente é entregue em uma casa nova: Infraestrutura, encanamento, equipamentos, instalação elétrica boa, etc. Tem muitas janelas, pois o aumento de custo é pouco. Assim, apesar do terreno pequeno, a luz é captada por todo lugar, por onde for possível. Também toda a parte mais cara para a construção do segundo andar já esta incluída: as fundações, as lajes e o local da escada.

Como falamos anteriormente, para economizar, nessa versão deixamos algumas partes para serem feitas posteriormente. As paredes em geral não possuem acabamento. Apenas na cozinha, área de serviço e banheiro foi previsto acabamento cerâmico. Isso economiza mais de R$ 5000. O acabamento pode ser feito depois, mas também pode ser deixado assim. Foi pensado para funcionar muito bem sem qualquer acabamento.

We began the project with the budget scheduling, which should stay in constant evolution. The house costs, in its minimal but fully habitable version, less than 55 000 BRL. Together with the design files, we are providing the full budget estimation spreadsheet. We used several public sources like SINAPI, and prices from PMSP and FDE-SP, which are indicated in the spreadsheet. All these prices can be revised and changed, allowing anyone to adapt the prices to what is available in his/her city and know precisely how much it will cost. In this estimation, we also used systematically the highest prices available, to avoid bad surprises later. So this house might cost less than that.

With 55 000 BRL, it has everything that is commonly included in a new house: Infrastructure, piping, equipment, good electrical installation, etc. There are large windows, which don't raise the price much. Therefore, even on a small terrain, light can enter everywhere, wherever possible. All the more expensive part of the possible upper floor is already included: Foundations, slabs, and the place for the stairs.

As we wrote earlier, to save money, in this version, some parts are left to be done later. Most of the walls don't have finishing. Only the kitchen, service area and bathroom have ceramics on the walls. This saves more than 5 000 BRL. Finishing can be dome later, but it can also be left as is. The project is thought to work without the need for any finishing.

Uma outra grande economia possível, em vez de construir uma casa só, é construir mais de uma, e dessa maneira, compartilhar uma das paredes laterais com um vizinho.

Ela pode ser construída com blocos de concreto ou cerâmicos. O preço é quase o mesmo e as propriedades, similares. O bloco cerâmico respira melhor, o que melhora a atmosfera dentro da casa. Existem também outras possibilidades que ainda não exploramos, como o tijolo de solo-cimento.

O valor da casa sem economia nenhuma é R$ 67 000. Mas também é possível diminuir o preço bem abaixo de R$ 55 000, por exemplo fazendo algumas partes si mesmo, economizando mão de obra. Não é nenhuma tarefa impossível, existem muitas maneiras de aprender.

Caso seja construída com construtora, o valor ficara bem mais alto por causa dos custos indiretos da construtora, como transporte, funcionários, mestre de obra, etc, e que incluem também o lucro da empresa. Essas despesas indiretas hoje em dia podem chegar em torno de 30% do valor da obra.

Esse projeto é totalmente open source. Todos os arquivos podem ser baixados, usados e modificados por quem quiser. Mas também permite que outras pessoas tragam ideias e que o projeto melhore. Sinta-se a vontade para agregar e discutir.

Another possible big saving is, instead of building a single house, to build more than one next to each other, so one of the side walls can be shared with a neighbour.

It could be built with concrete blocks or ceramic masonry. The price is almost the same and the properties are similar. The ceramic masonry breathes better, which betters the atmosphere inside the house. There are more possibilities we didn't explore yet, such as cement-earth blocks.

The price of the house without any of these savings is 67 000 BRL. But it is also possible to lower the price well below 55 000 BRL, for example by self-building some parts, which saves labour costs. This is by no means an impossible task, many ways to learn exist.

If this is house is given to a construction company to build, the cost will be much higher, because of the indirect costs of the company like transport, employees, etc and the profit of the company itself. These indirect costs can today add around 30% to the building costs.

This project is fully open source. All the project files can be downloaded, used and modified by anyone. But it also allows other people to bring ideas and make the project better. Feel at home to join and discuss.


in categories  works  architecture  projects  3d  blender  permalink:  289   posted on 02.11.2016 16:51
From Yorik

Casa Natureza

USA, 2016
Em projeto

Uma casa modernista da grande tradição brasileira do ideal das casas modernistas, que funciona para os climas do hemisfério norte.

Retorno à natureza

A modernist house in the grand tradition of Brazilian modernist dream houses, that works in northern hemisphere climates.

Return to the nature

Hoje todos nós vemos que a industrialização acelerada que nós temos vivido durante as últimas décadas está indo longe demais. O clima do nosso planeta está sofrendo perigosamente, bem como nossos próprios corpos humanos. Estamos consumindo muito, e confiando demais em uma cadeia interminável de tecnologias poluentes, onde cada uma finge resolver os problemas criados pela anterior. Muitos de nós sentem a necessidade urgente de escapar desse ciclo, e redescobrir um estilo de vida mais ligado à natureza e simplicidade.

Esta casa coloca você dentro da natureza. A qualquer momento, a partir de qualquer ponto, você vê, ouve e sente a natureza ao seu redor. Um mínimo de artificial e um máximo de natural. Ela funciona naturalmente melhor em grandes terrenos, mas pode ser acomodada em terrenos menores também, usando muita vegetação e jogando de forma inteligente com a topografia.

Today we all see that the accelerated industrialization we've been living in during the last decades is going too far. The climate of our planet is suffering dangerously, as well as our own human bodies. We are consuming too much, and relying too much on an endless chain of polluting technologies, each one pretending to solve the problems created by the previous one. Many of us feel the urgent need to escape that cycle, and rediscover a lifestyle more connected to nature and simplicity.

This house places you inside the nature. At any moment, from any point, you see, hear and feel nature around you. A minimum of artificial, and a maximum of natural. It works of course best on large terrains, but can be accommodated on smaller terrains as well, using of a lot of vegetation and playing intelligently with the topography.

Herança modernista

Modernist heritage

Arquitetos modernistas em todo o mundo, de volta à década de 40, tiveram uma forte compreensão da necessidade de uma conexão entre o ser humano e elementos naturais, como ar fresco e sol, e o delicado equilíbrio entre os volumes construídos e espaços abertos. Infelizmente, depois que os mestres desapareceram, o que os seus descendentes e o mundo lembraram do modernismo foi o aspecto, as, formas ascéticas brancas, e esqueceu-se sobre essas ideias muito fundamentais. As próximas décadas, evidentemente, viram o surgimento de fortes movimentos anti-modernistas. Hoje, estamos finalmente em condições de fazer as pazes com nosso passado e fazer algo novo a partir dessas preciosas ideias originais.

Esta casa não tenta ser de qualquer estilo. Ele tenta oferecer uma conexão simples e direta entre você e o mundo ao seu redor. Isso significa ser capaz de ver, ouvir ou sentir o exterior, e também tocar em matérias-primas, sentir a sua temperatura e sua conexão com a própria terra.

Modernist architects all over the world, back in the 40s, had a strong understanding of the need for connection between the human being and natural elements such as fresh air and sun, and the delicate balance between built volumes and open spaces. Unfortunately, after the masters vanished, what their descendants and the world remembered of modernism was the aspect, the white, ascetic forms, and forgot about those very fundamental ideas. The next decades, obviously, saw the emergence of strong anti-modernist movements. Today, we are finally able to make peace with our past, and make something new out of these precious, original ideas.

This house doesn't try to be of any style. It tries to offer a simple and direct connection between you and the world around you. This means being able to see, hear or feel the outside, but also touch raw materials, feel their temperature, and their connection to the very earth.

Ótimo comportamento climático

Great climatic behaviour

Um dos lugares no mundo onde a arquitetura modernista melhor sobreviveu com seu significado original é o Brasil. O clima perfeito, que, na maior parte do país torna o aquecimento ou arrefecimento desnecessário, empurrou o florescimento destas casas maravilhosas, aninhadas no meio da densa vegetação nativa, onde é possível abrir uma grande parte (se não toda) das peles de vidro e deixar o lado de fora entrar na casa.

"Aqui não é a Itália, isto nunca vai funcionar aqui", disse o povo, quando os arquitetos da cidade de Copenhagem propuseram em toda a cidade a criação de uma série de ciclovias, espaços abertos, terraços e lugares para que as pessoas simplesmente pudessem sentar e desfrutar de estar fora. Após terem sido implementados, não só eles são amplamente utilizados durante todo o ano, mesmo sob temperaturas congelantes, mas também mudaram Copenhagen profundamente e tornando-a uma das cidades com maior qualidade de vida em todo o mundo. Hoje, a área comercial pedestre e livre de carros Strøget é o cartão postal de Copenhagem. Acreditamos que o contato com a natureza é algo que todos nós desejamos, não importa onde no mundo.

One of the place in the world where modernist architecture has best survived with its original meaning is Brazil. The perfect climate, that in most of the country renders heating or cooling unnecessary, pushed the flourishing of these marvellous houses, nested in the middle of dense native vegetation, where it is possible to open a large part (if not all) of the glass walls, and let the outside enter the house.

"Here is not Italy, this will never work here" said people when the Copenhagen city architects proposed to create throughout the city a series of cycle routes, open spaces, terraces and places for people to simply sit and enjoy being outside. After these were implemented, not only are they extensively used the whole year round, even under freezing temperatures, but they also changed Copenhagen deeply and turned it one of the cities with the highest life quality worldwide. Today, the pedestrian, car free shopping area Strøget is the Copenhagen postcard. We believe that contact with nature is something we all want, no matter where in the world.

Não podemos deixar todas as nossas janelas abertas durante todo o ano, como no Brasil, quando vivemos em latitudes mais ao norte, isso é verdade. Isso não significa que nós não gostaríamos de abri-las amplamente, durante o tempo em que é possível. Isso também não significa que nós não poderíamos aproveitar esse contato sob outra forma, durante os meses de inverno.

We cannot leave all our windows open the whole year round, like in Brazil, when we live under more northern latitudes, that is true. That doesn't mean we don't like to open them wide, during the time when it is possible. That also doesn't mean we couldn't enjoy that contact under another form, during the winter months.

  1. laje de concreto
  2. teto isolante
  3. piso isolante
  4. vidro de alto desempenho
  5. sombreamento de bambu sobre o vidro ou painéis isolantes
  6. deck de madeira

Esta casa oferece grandes paredes de vidro, que podem ser amplamente e sem qualquer controle abertas durante todos os dias de verão, tornando os diferentes espaços interiores totalmente parte do lado de fora, e fazer você se sentir como se estivesse no Brasil. Durante o inverno, o seu isolamento altamente inovador a torna quase uma casa passiva. Uma concha de concreto externa funciona como um exoesqueleto de proteção. No interior, uma caixa térmica, literalmente, uma caixa dentro de outra caixa, é totalmente livre de elementos estruturais, o que a torna também totalmente livre de pontes térmicas, e fácil de aquecer. Tudo isto é conseguido com bom senso, bom pensamento e idéias simples, ao invés de tecnologias pesadas. Esta casa simplesmente não precisa delas. E mesmo durante os dias de inverno rigoroso, você nunca perde o contato com a natureza. Isso visualmente, graças às grandes janelas, mas também por causa dos materiais brutos e simples que estão infiltrados em seu interior.

  1. concrete slab
  2. insulated ceiling
  3. insulated floor
  4. high-performance glass
  5. bamboo shadowing over glass or insulated panels
  6. wooden deck

This house offers large glass walls, that can be widely and wildly opened all around during the summer days, turning the different spaces fully part of the outside, and making you feel like you were in Brazil. During the winter, its state-of-the-art insulation makes it almost a passive house. An outer concrete shell acts as a protective exoskeleton. Inside, an insulated box, literally a box-in-a-box, is totally free of structural elements, which makes it also totally free of thermal bridges, and easy to heat. All this is achieved with good sense, good thinking and simple ideas, rather than heavy technologies. This house simply doesn't need them. And even during harsh winter days, you never loose contact with nature. Visually, thanks to the large windows, but also because raw and simple materials infiltrate inside.

Um design de código aberto e internacional

International, open-source design

Esta casa adquiriu o conhecimento combinado de uma equipe de arquitetos brasileiros, europeus e norte-americanos. Nós entendemos as qualidades e a sensação única dessas casas brasileiras ideais, sabemos como elas funcionam e o que as faz formidáveis. Nós também temos uma enorme experiência de trabalho em países mais frios, sabemos o que faz um isolamento bom e eficiente, e nós temos ao longo do tempo desenvolvido várias idéias para fazer ambos os lados trabalharem juntos.

This house gains from the combined knowledge of a team of Brazilian, European and US architects. We understand the qualities and the unique feeling of these dream brazilian houses and know how they work and what makes them great. We also have a lot of experience working in colder countries, know what makes a good and efficient insulation, and we have over time developed several ideas to make both sides work together.

O projeto desta casa também tem o código totalmente aberto, o que permite uma alta permeabilidade das ideias. Ao ser usado por outras pessoas, ele também se beneficia do que as outras pessoas fazem, e novas ideias taçhadas no mundo todo são fáceis de adaptar e incorporar. Acreditamos que este é seu o verdadeiro e último significado que a habitação passiva e de baixo consumo deve alcançar, em vez de se tornar refém de poucas soluções de alta tecnologia.

The design of this house is also fully open-source, which permits a high permeability of ideas. By being used by other people, it also benefits from what other people do, and new cleaver ideas from around the world are easy to adapt and incorporate. We believe this is the ultimate, true meaning that passive and low-consumption housing must achieve, instead of being hostage of a few high-tech solutions.

Quanto custa?

How much does it cost?

Infelizmente, é impossível dar uma resposta direta a esta pergunta. Existem muitas variáveis que dependem de condições locais, tais como o clima, o terreno, que pode exigir fundações profundas ou não, a disponibilidade e preço dos materiais próximos ao terreno, e de construtores capazes de lidar com as matérias-primas deste casa com qualidade.

No entanto, graças ao uso da tecnologia BIM, uma lista de quantidades está sendo elaborada em conjunto com o projeto. Este quantitativo enumera todos os itens necessários para construir a casa. Com essa lista em mãos, você será capaz de ir a uma empresa de construção, ou orçamentista mais próximo, e pedir para colocar os preços em cada item.

O projeto da casa também pode ser profundamente modificado sem perder suas qualidades fundamentais. Isso permite que uma grande modificação de quantidade de espaço e do orçamento, para cima ou para baixo.

It is unfortunately impossible to give a direct answer to this question. There are too many variables that depend on local conditions, such as the climate, the terrain, which can require deep foundations or not, the availability and price of materials close to the terrain, and of builders able to cope with the raw materials of this house with quality.

However, thanks to the use of BIM technology, a bill of quantities is being elaborated together with the project. This bill lists all the items needed to build the house. With that bill in hands, you will be able to go to the nearest building company or quantity surveyor, and ask to put prices on each item.

The house design can also be heavily modified, without loosing its fundamental qualities. This allows a great deal of space and budget scaling, upwards or downwards.

  1. sala de estar e sala de jantar "públicos": 35,90 m² / 386,5 SQF
  2. cozinha: 8,55 m² / 92 SQF
  3. entrada/corredor: 28,44 m² / 306 SQF
  4. área de serviço: 5,41 m² / 58 SQF
  5. lavatório: 2,37 m² / 25,5 SQF
  6. banho: 4,78 m² / 51,5 SQF
  7. suíte: 11,30 m² / 121,5 SQF
  8. dormitório: 11,30 m² / 121,5 SQF
  9. dormitório: 11,30 m² / 121,5 SQF
  10. banheiro: 3,51 m² / 38 SQF
  11. escritório: 3,70 m² / 40 SQF
  12. sala de estar "privada": 26,5 m² / 285 SQF
  13. terraço: 70,69 m² / 761 SQF
  1. "public" lounge & dining room: 35.90 m² / 386.5 sqf
  2. kitchen: 8.55 m² / 92 sqf
  3. hall: 28.44 m² / 306 sqf
  4. laundry: 5.41 m² / 58 sqf
  5. lavatory: 2.37 m² / 25.5 sqf
  6. bathroom: 4.78 m² / 51.5 sqf
  7. master bedroom: 11.30 m² / 121.5 sqf
  8. bedroom: 11.30 m² / 121.5 sqf
  9. bedroom: 11.30 m² / 121.5 sqf
  10. bathroom: 3.51 m² / 38 sqf
  11. office: 3.70 m² / 40 sqf
  12. "private" lounge: 26.5 m² / 285 sqf
  13. terrace: 70.69 m² / 761 sqf

Este projeto é de código aberto. Os arquivos estão disponíveis no nosso github.

This project is open-source. Files are available on our github.


in categories  works  architecture  projects  permalink:  288   posted on 02.11.2016 16:49
From Yorik

in categories  architecture  projects  permalink:  230   posted on 04.05.2016 1:29
From Yorik

Unidade Básica de Saúde Riacho Fundo

Esse projeto foi pensado para contribuir com a nova política de humanização do SUS. Nessa visão, a Unidade básica de Saúde (UBS) é um local de acolhimento e aconselhamento, sendo muito mais um local onde se cuida do que onde se cura. Ela não possui nenhum tipo de serviço de pronto atendimento, não faz cirurgias, nem atendimentos ou exames complexos. Basicamente, destina-se a ser uma continuação do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF), onde os agentes de saúde do governo percorrem as moradias de uma área para auxiliar a população. Nesta UBS, a grande demanda são campanhas de vacinação, acompanhamento de gestantes e atendimento odontológico. Desse pressuposto, nasceu a ideia de um local que fosse mais como uma casa e menos como um hospital. Um lugar onde as pessoas ficassem à vontade e que também interagisse de outras formas com a comunidade, reforçando o caráter holístico da prevenção e também sua condição de direito e não de caridade. Um lugar para acolher e ser acolhido. Um lugar privilegiado de ensino e de aprendizagem, nunca um serviço menor.

This project was designed to contribute to the new humanization SUS policy. In this view, the Basic Health Unit (UBS) is a place of welcome and advice. It is much more a place to take care of than a place to heal. It does not have any kind of first aid service, surgeries or complex tests. Basically, it intended to be a continuation of the Family Health Program (PSF), where government health agents visit the houses in a specific area to assist the population. In this UBS, the great demand are vaccination campaigns, monitoring of pregnant women and dental care. From this assumption, the idea of ​​a place that works more like a home and less a hospital was born. A place where people stay at ease and that is able to interact in other ways with the community, strengthening the holistic character of prevention and also its status of a people's right instead of charity. A place to welcome and to be welcomed. A privileged place for teaching and learning, never a minor service.

Maximizando recursos: Promovendo saúde com áreas verdes

Maximizing resources: Potentializing health with green areas

A implantação do projeto resulta da adequação ao terreno e propõe uma edificação longilínea e térrea e integrada com um parque que recobre toda a área restante, visando sustentabilidade, menor impacto ambiental e custo. A arquitetura é intencionalmente simples e eficiente, deixando o protagonismo aos usuários, à natureza e à comunidade do entorno.

The project implantation results from the adequate use of the terrain and proposes a long one-floor building integrated with a park that covers all the remaining area, giving sustainability, smaller ecological footprint and cost. The architecture is intentionally simple and efficient, leaving the stage to users, nature and community.

A extrapolação, pelo parque, dos limites físicos construídos é a resposta arquitetônica ao uso da UBS como um espaço de promoção de saúde e bem-estar e não apenas um espaço de cura. O espaço verde aqui proposto é uma extensão da atenção integral à saúde, proporcionando uma recepção e espera mais acolhedoras e diversificadas.

The overflow, by the park, of the physical limits of the building is the architectural translation of the UBS as a health and well-being promotion tool, not only as a place for cure. The green space is an extension of the concept of integral attention to health, and gives a much broader sense to the welcome and reception space.

O parque permeia as áreas de espera e leva pequenos jardins para dentro da edificação, fazendo uma gradação entre as esperas internas e protegidas até a total imersão na natureza. Ele melhora toda a ambiência dos serviços prestados e funciona como um refúgio democrático de encontro e integração entre todos seus usuários, sejam eles profissionais, pacientes e acompanhantes ou pessoas oriundas da comunidade.

A diluição das esperas no parque resulta no término das filas. O espaço é fluido e orgânico, um espaço para permanecer e não apenas de esperar, uma ode ao bem-estar.

The park permeates the waiting areas and brings small gardens inside the building, creating a gradient between protected interior waiting up to total immersion in nature. It betters all the atmosphere around the care services and works as a democratic encounter and integration zone for all its users, being professionals, patients and relatives, or people from the neighbourhood.

The dilution of waiting areas into the park means the end of queues. The space is fluid and organic, a place to stay and not only a place to wait, an ode to well-being.



O paisagismo do parque não é apenas estético, mas sim utilitário. Ele é um membro ativo e indispensável do projeto. Concebido apenas com espécies nativas e disponíveis no local, ele ajuda a transformar o microclima do terreno e do entorno, tornando as temperaturas mais amenas e também contribuindo para melhorar a qualidade do ar.

A opção de um paisagismo com utilização de espécies nativas e majoritariamente arbóreas como ipê, jatobá, angelim, sucupira ou similares diminui o custo de implementação e gera uma manutenção mínima; tanto no parque como nos estacionamentos.

The landscape design of the park is not only visual, but also functional. It is an active and indispensable member of the project. Conceived only with native species available at the site, it helps to transform the microclimate of the terrain and around, lowering temperatures and contributing to a better air quality.

The choice of a landscape design that uses local and long-lasting species like ipê, jatobá, angelim, sucupira or similar lowers implementation costs and maintenance needs, in the park as well as in the parking spaces.

Ciente de que a vegetação possui seu próprio tempo de crescimento para fornecer a transformação de clima almejada, é proposto um estado intermediário de projeto onde os locais futuramente sombreados são permeados com guarda-sóis metálicos fixos.

Estes, permanecerão como coadjuvantes do espaço até o momento em que as árvores atinjam uma altura suficiente para que o parque funcione e então serão removidos. O parque adentra as áreas de recepção e espera, sendo estas previstas para permanecerem abertas durante o funcionamento da unidade.

Because the vegetation needs its own growing time before it can provide the aimed climatic transformation, an intermediary state is proposed, where fixed metallic parasols are spread along the areas to be shadowed by trees in the future.

These will act as space co-actors until the moment when the trees gain sufficient size for the park to work as designed, and will then be removed. The park permeates the waiting and reception areas, which are made to remain widely open during the working hours of the UBS.

Apesar de existirem alguns bancos fixos construídos em conjunto com os canteiros internos, é prevista a utilização de cadeiras móveis.

As cadeiras utilizadas podem ser arranjadas de diferentes maneiras dentro do espaço e mesmo serem levadas para o exterior proporcionando uma maior autonomia e descontração. Para o fechamento noturno ou eventual quebra-ventos são previstos painéis metálicos perfurados e portões nos corredores.

Apesar da espera dos pacientes comportar o tamanho exigido dentro de sua área coberta, ela se espalha pelo parque, tendo sua concentração dispersada pela diminuição de assentos conforme se distancia da edificação, tornando mais fácil o rápido acesso aos consultórios.

Although fixed seating is provided around the internal gardens, the main idea is to use mobile chairs.

The chairs can be arranged in different ways inside the waiting spaces or even be carried outside, giving more autonomy and relaxing to users. When the UBS is closed at night or in case of strong winds, perforated metallic panels can partially or totally close the open spaces.

Although the waiting space has the necessary size under the covered area, it spreads out in the park, with decreasing seating density, making more direct and natural the relationship with the consultancy areas.



Devido à natureza aberta dos edifícios, à utilização de ventilação cruzada e à imersão do edifício no parque, o uso de ar-condicionado central é dispensado. O aproveitamento de luz e ventilação naturais é aumentado pelos corredores e áreas de espera abertos.

A ventilação cruzada de várias maneiras: a cobertura é elevada em relação às lajes de fechamento, as janelas são voltadas para corredores abertos e ligados diretamente às áreas de espera perpendiculares aos ventos dominantes.

A cobertura de telhas metálicas avança para fora dos limites das paredes para evitar a insolação direta nas janelas e preservar a temperatura interior. A distribuição das esquadrias de alumínio com 1, 2 ou 3 módulos geram variações de fachada e garantem a plena ventilação.

A estrutura simples permite a adoção de várias soluções: concreto armado moldado in loco, pré-moldado ou alvenaria estrutural, sem mudanças no projeto.

The open nature of the building, the use of cross-ventilation and the immersion in the park turn air-conditioning unnecessary. Natural light and natural ventilation gains are maximised by the large corridors and the open waiting spaces.

The cross-ventilation is done in several ways: the roof is elevated above the ceiling slabs, windows are opened on the corridors and directly linked to the open areas, which are perpendicular to dominant winds.

The metallic roof extends out of the walls lines to impeach direct sun casting on the windows and preserve interior temperature. The distribution of aluminium window frames with 1, 2 or 3 modules give variation to the facades and allow full ventilation.

The simple structure allows to adopt many building solutions: precast concrete, in-loco concrete, or simple concrete blocks masonry, without impact on the project.

A chegada à Unidade Básica de Saúde se dá por um acesso pedestre voltado ao estacionamento público, um acesso pedestre que liga o parque à praça e uma entrada compartilhada entre pedestres e carros. Em toda a extensão do parque o carro é tolerado, sendo o pedestre o usuário principal.

A sua utilização por todas as pessoas permite mesmo a modificação da relação paciente/profissional de saúde, possibilitando encontros e ensinamentos ao ar livre entre estes, ou mesmo entre os próprios profissionais.

The arrival to the UBS is done by a pedestrian access through the public parking space, which forms a pedestrian link from the street to the park and a shared entrance between pedestrians and cars. In the whole entrance space, the car is tolerated, but the main user is the pedestrian.

Its use by everybody opens possibilities of evolution of the patient/doctor relationship, allows encounters and open-air teaching and learning between them, or even among the workers of the UBS.

O aproveitamento do espaço exterior também possibilita a inclusão de uma abordagem holística da promoção da saúde, com o uso de parquinhos infantis e equipamentos para exercícios físicos, ou mesmo espaços que podem ser compartilhados com a comunidade para aulas de ioga, alongamento ou tai chi chuan por exemplo.

O auditório se abre para um pequeno anfiteatro e pode aumentar sua área se unindo com a sala lateral, o que permite sua utilização por um público maior e mesmo pelos moradores das redondezas.

The intense use of the exterior space also makes possible a more holistic approach of health care, with the use of child parks, physical exercise equipment, or space that can be shared by the local community for activities like yoga, stretching or tai-chi-chuan.

The auditorium opens to a small exterior amphitheatre, and can have its size widened by uniting with the lateral room, which makes it usable by a bigger audience and by the local community.

Finalmente, transformar um edifício público em um espaço verde e comunitário contribui para que o projeto transcenda os limites físicos de seu terreno, melhorando a qualidade de vida de todo o entorno quer seja no âmbito social, ecológico ou mesmo de segurança. Os benefícios urbanos e ecológicos promovidos por ele se estendem mesmo aos moradores que não são seus usuários diretos e valorizam a região como um todo, resultando numa maximização dos recursos públicos investidos.

Finally, turning a public building into a green community space contributes to make the project transcend the physical limits of its terrain, bettering the quality of life of all its surroundings, in the social, ecological or even security spheres. The urban and ecological benefits brought by it extend to everybody, even to people who live nearby and are not direct users of the UBS, and raise the quality of the whole region, a maximisation of the invested public money.

Pranchas originais do concurso:

Original sheets of the competition:

Este projeto é de código aberto. Os arquivos estão disponíveis no nosso github.

This project is open-source. Files are available on our github.


in categories  architecture  opensource  permalink:  170   posted on 06.01.2016 23:52
From Yorik

How to learn architecture





I've heard a couple of people asking this recently, and I like the idea of trying to learn architecture outside of the conventional way, so here are a couple of ideas. This is all just personal opinion, okay? I'm also illustrating this article with works of mine, in no particular order or meaning, just to make the text more digestible (please forgive the self-promotion).

Foreword : Architecture vs ArchViz



Most people who told the above question come from the 3D modelling realm (Blender mostly), and many don't make a distinction between Architecture and Architecture Visualization (ArchViz). Although this might horrify many architects, I actually think it makes some sense. Traditionally, architecture would be the design of the building, while archviz would be only the modelling + rendering of an architecture project that was already designed (by someone else in most cases). Many architects think the second part is not architecture but just something you pay someone to do, to sell your project better.

However, what many architects do is basically take pieces of other projects, and make something new from those pieces. This is not necessarily bad practice, after all, any artistic creation is a collage of ideas gathered somewhere else. But in what regard is this fundamentally different than archviz (taking someone else's project, and do something new - images, models - with it)? And also, if an architect designs a building "in his head", so to speak, then there is someone else who, by doing the archviz, gives form to that building, who actually did the real architecture work? This is far from obvious. Even if the first architect actually produced some drawings, wouldn't the fact that the project still needs an archviz job indicate that it is, in fact, not complete? And how important is that last part?

Besides, the traditional way of representing architecture, with line drawings, is probably doomed to oblivion soon. It only existed while we had no better way. But most people will understand your project better with 3D (real-time or rendering), and the other side, where construction people must understand your project technically (how to build it), that still needs technical drawings for now, might change soon too. Most other engineering specialities already model more for machines to read than for humans. Only a fool would believe this won't happen with construction too...

Finally, if you have good modeling and rendering skills, there is no denying that it is extremely useful, if not fundamental, for your architecture work. For example when you decide materials, lighting, ambiances, etc. Not to talk about the obvious relationship between your capacity at 3D modeling and your capacity to give form to your ideas. In some projects where these things are very important, it is not rare that the person who does the archviz is in fact who did most of the project...

The famous Blender guru Andrew Price understood this pretty well with his Architecture Academy. It is an online course to teach you architecture and archviz at the same time, as one unified thing. I find that approach clever and brilliant. I encourage you to abandon that separation too, and consider the act of modeling and rendering your architecture work as fundamental as the rest. Next generations of architects will probably find it silly to think otherwise.

Architecture



First thing is about "formal" architecture education (means: go to the university/arch school and get a degree): The truth is that it absolutely not indispensable to learn architecture. Most of the things you learn there can be found in books and online (although it requires more effort than having it fed to you in a class), and the most important part, which is how to make good architectural projects, they don't teach you at all (you end up learning by doing, which you can do by yourself too).

The important part that you get when doing the university course, is the diploma. In almost any country, the practice of architecture is restricted. To build something, the owner of the future building must ask permission to local authority (usually the city council). This permission can only be requested or signed by the holder of an architecture or engineering degree. This means that without a degree, you won't be able to legally build your own projects. There are some workarounds of course, the most common being to work with someone else who has such a degree and will sign for you (in an architecture office you need only one person able to sign). I know a lot of people who do architecture projects and have no formal degree.

There is also a whole part of architecture that is mostly hidden in arch schools, and that will interest you specially if you come from the 3D modelling world: Your capacity to understand and develop good architecture, today, is deeply bound to your capacity to do 3D. Most architects still don't understand that, and most schools will still teach you the old ways (working mainly with 2D drawings like plans and sections). 3D is commonly regarded as "just an accessory tool to do nice images". Most architects won't do 3D themselves, but have a "3D boy" in the office who does it for them. And modern software tools like Revit actually encourage them to keep thinking that way, by telling them "keep working in 2D like before, the software will do the 3D automatically". Of course, nothing could be more wrong.



Formal learning



Just so you know about it, here goes an overview of the most important stuff you learn at arch school:

History of architecture: This seems boring, but it is actually pretty important. Everything you build, or will build, will become part of an existing world where other people have already tried other things before you, and where probably most of your brilliant ideas have already been tested somewhere. It is very important that you understand those things, why people have been doing things a certain way, and, even more important, that you don't repeat the same mistakes. In most arch schools, they will only teach you local history (European schools will teach only European architecture, Latin American schools only Latin American architecture, etc). I know, it's stupid, but that's the way they do...

Structural engineering: This is basically how to project buildings that won't collapse. How thick must be a brick wall, where do you need beams and columns, should they be in concrete or steel, what size should they have, what thickness must have a concrete slab, how much iron you need in it, etc. You must think this must be the most important course of the whole arch school, right? Wrong. In the past, architects needed to know these things to survive. Today, however, it is very rare to see a building project where you won't have a structural engineer with you, who will calculate all those things. As a result, architects have become very weak in that area. The stuff you learn at school is usually boring and insufficient, and given the situation above, you will hardly learn anything more after that. This is a deficiency we must fight at all costs.

Sketching: This is also very important. Although you hardly need to draw architecture projects by hand these days, your hand is still by far the quickest way to connect your brain to a visible result. It is so fast that your hand can draw things that your conscient self did not realize yet. When you are trying to get ideas, you often find yourself sketching things out, without really knowing what you are doing (like when you are in a boring phone conversation). In other words, you are "trying things". It is when you look at what you drew, that you begin to get ideas. Every artist will tell you that. It is a very fundamental point of architectural design. But this does not come for free, it requires a LOT of training. One thing I can guarantee you, no matter how bad you are at drawing, everybody can learn and become good, it just requires practice. Interesting afterthought: see Bob's article about sketching.



Architecture criticism: The term criticism, here, means: being able to look at existing architecture and other projects, and develop an opinion about it. In architecture, you should never (okay, rarely) say "I like this" or "I don't like this", or "this is beautiful"/"this is ugly". Because it is sterile. What if you say "I like this" and I say "I don't like it"? Which one of us is right? We can't tell, and therefore there is no point in discussing any further. Rather, you must train to look at architecture and detect WHAT you found good and what you found bad. Then we can discuss and learn something (we will remember it if we meet the same issue later in one of our projects). This is a very important point to understand in order to learn the unlearnable, which is how to do good projects. More on this below. Of course, the most important area where you must apply criticism, is to your own projects. And preferentially allow others to criticize your work as much as possible. Your best lessons will be there.

Doing architectural projects: Actually, they don't teach you that. On first day they give you a blank sheet of paper, and say: "Do a project now". Then you try, and then you'll try again many, many more times. That's basically how you learn. Of course, there are thousands of tricks you can learn on the way (what is a good size for a sleeping room, what is a good way to distribute apartments in a building, etc), but there are easy resources to learn that (more below). The thing is, you will never learn it all (the first time you'll need to do a hospital, there will be an awful lot you don't know, no matter how much you learned before), and, more basically, knowing all that is simply not enough. You might be able to design a house where all the rooms have the right sizes. You might even know everything there is to know about architecture, and do a perfect house, with perfect lighting, no defects, minimal energy consumption, etc. Even so this might be a plain, boring, uninteresting house. How to do good architecture projects is one of the most difficult, and unlearnable things in the world.

Lots of seemingly-important-but-actually-not-so-much stuff: Urban design (rather obsolete, usually, this is an area that is changing a lot), ecostuff and landscape design (you'll need to learn it all over again with each new project), ethics and other "good behaviors" (WTF), laws and regulations (unlearn everything as much as possible and relearn on case-by-case later, keep updating constantly), thermal and energy design (what you learn will already be obsolete when you're out of school), electricity, hydraulics and other building technologies (same thing), software (to turn you into a good Autodesk slave), economy (WTF v2)

Representation: Someone will have to pay for the building, right? You better be good at convincing people that your project is worth the money. Not only show how cool it is, but also make sure the owner gets what he/she wants, and show that it can be built for the price you pretend it will. They teach you a lot of stuff in that regard, of dubious importance. Suffices to say, one way or another, you will need to learn to show your work, and to show how to build it. Rather than learning a dozen of obsolete drawing conventions, in my opinion, one should constantly reflect on that during one's life, and constantly update to the best way to achieve these goals. Being it with drawings, images, models, computer 3D, or anything better that the future will bring.

At the end, they give you the degree. That's the really good thing. Keep in mind that these degrees are rarely valid internationally (except between European countries and a couple of other cases), if you migrate to another country, expect lots of headache and bureaucracy to be able to practice there...



What you don't learn at school



This could be a huge chapter, but let's do it short. When you are fresh out of school, you know almost nothing. I had heard older architects say it takes you about 10 years of practice to become a reasonable architect (it's been 20 years and I have seen no sign of it yet). Basically most of the useful stuff you'll learn out of school, by doing. The first thing they give you to do in your first job, you have absolutely no idea of how to do it. "Turn this sketch into a construction plan, before tomorrow!" for example. You don't even know what a construction plan is. So you ask your new colleagues what it is you must do and how to do it, they will give you another one as an example and tell you to do the same, and that's how you'll learn most of the job. I've seen people with no architectural background at all being hired as interns in architecture offices, and managing it as well or better than architects fresh out of schools.

You need to learn all the complex world of how to build things. What is needed to do in order to have a built house ready? How long does it take? How much does it cost? What are the different alternatives to build a certain thing? How do they compare? Plus, all this changes completely every 10 years, so you must update your knowledge constantly. This might sound frightening when said like that, but it is actually not different than most other jobs, if you want to do it well.

There is no real reason why the above should scare you, if you put your hands into architecture, and you succeed in steering towards it for good, it will come naturally, step by step. You only need to keep open to it and swallow as much information as you can, specially coming from people who know how to build (masons and other people from the worksite). What they have to tell you is precious.



So what should you learn



The most fundamental thing you need to do as an architect is to do meaningful work. When you build a building, you are changing the built world, and you are spending an awful lot of, in safest cases, someone else's money, or, in most serious cases, public money. People will have their life changed because of what you did. You might kill people (construction workers, because you designed something which turned out to be difficult and dangerous to build, but also people who will suffer just a little bit everyday, because of something you did, and who might die of it one day, people depressed by their contemporary city life, for who your bad building might be just the drop too much, etc). But you can also make people happy. Not only people who will use your building, but maybe everybody in that city might be just a little happier (think of a new park for example, or a cool new theatre). A good project is a mix of several things that are hard to define and that you won't find anyone who can teach you at once. You need to learn that yourself from scratch. It will take your whole life.

As painters have color as their tool, musicians have sound, architects have space. Architecture is basically the design of space. This is a very large concept. It is not only interior spaces, like rooms, halls, etc. but also more generally, any place where you can find yourself as a human being. The facade of your building shapes the portion of the city in front of it, visually, of course, but also socially (will people go in and out there? Will it be an empty place or full of people?), even physically (Will it project shadow on the sidewalk? Protect from the rain?). Architecture is not about designing beautiful stuff (same as above, what if you find it beautiful and I don't? Who is right?). Everything we call beautiful, ornamental, is actually part of shaping a space. Giving it meaning. Saying something with it. All of the learning above (history, structural design, sketching, etc) only serves that purpose: help you to design better spaces.

And finally, there is one big issue that becomes everyday more critical. The world is becoming everyday more unequal. A small minority of rich people is swallowing (and in many cases destroying) almost all of the resources of the Earth, leaving almost nothing to half the people of the planet. Architects have massively taken side with the rich part, are working for them (poor people are thought to have no money for a building), and contribute to maintain the situation as it is by creating secluded spaces where only some are allowed. To the vast majority of the people of this planet, what most architects do is meaningless and doesn't make the world better. How can we change that, make architecture a tool for social changes, instead of something that helps inequity to prosper, for me this is the most important question of all. I haven't found a clear answer to this yet.

These are all very difficult things to learn of course. I'll give some ideas and resources below, but remember that none of them will directly teach you anything of the above paragraphs. Rather, you should consider that your true skill at architecture builds upon the pieces you gather here and there, so you'd better start at gathering.

There is one more thing: you need to train a lot. Your tools, and your capacity to get ideas, to test your ideas, and to turn your ideas into feasible, concrete, practical constructions. This needs constant effort and practice, a bit like a monk needs to pray every day. Hand drawing is very important for the reasons above, but I also think 3D modeling and the understanding of 3D space that comes with it is also fundamental, although often disregarded by architects. That places people who are good 3D modelers as excellent candidates to do architecture. Fortunately, that's an easy part, as there are abundant learning resources, even if not fully tailored for architecture.



Resources



I'm going to divide stuff into categories. It's mostly stuff that I find good or important, or that helped me a lot. Be aware that this is by no means complete, I'm pretty new at that game, but I'll keep looking and updating this section. If you know a good resource that is not listed below, please drop a comment!

Books


Architecture

Le Corbusier: Toward an architecture: This is a very fundamental book written by the famous modernist architect Le Corbusier. In my opinion, it tells you more about how one can situate oneself in relation to the history than a whole history of architecture course. You should certainly not embrace or follow blindly what's in that book, specially because it was written in 1920 something, and things have changed since then, but what is written in this book is still extremely meaningful, and has revolutionized architecture.

Architect's Data (more simply known as "the Neufert"): This is the holy bible of architects, that everybody has on his desk (it's easy to "get" in ebook version). It contains the whole range of precious human data like the optimal height of a sitting bench, of a table for eating, for working, the size of the equipment in a bathroom, etc along with many examples. In other words, everything you need to know about what size you must give to things used by humans.

A Pattern Language: This is an intriguing and interesting book that tries to attack the problem I've explained above: How do you do good architecture. It explains how to identify and make patterns, or, rules that produce good results. For example, "A kitchen is best with windows oriented toward East" (it actually is, because then it gets the nice morning sun, and not the hot afternoon sun, then stays cool at night). By combining several of these patterns, you build what he calls "design structures". It tells a lot about the "rules" you use when you design something.

The Architect's Portable Handbook by Pat Guthrie (No wikipedia link, easy to find on amazon or "other places"...): Okay, you want the whole Architecture course in one book? Here it is. It might seem simplistic (5 years course in one book?) but if you read that book entirely, I would bet you will know more than most architects when they are out of school (certainly more than me at that time).

The Death and Life of Great American Cities: A famous book by Jane Jacobs, a worldwide classic about what makes a good city. I didn't understand fully the impact of that book while I lived in Europe, since what it describes is (or better said was, at that time) pretty distant from the Euroreality. Out of it, though, it is a very different story... Highly recommended if cities interest you.

Architecture: Form, space and order: by Francis Ching. A (the most?) classical student book that talks about form, basically why buildings are usually square, why greek columns look that way, why we like (so to speak) windows with a cross in it, why churches have that shape, etc, etc. A masterpiece about why architects did what they did, and what lessons we can get from that.

Yes is more by BIG: A comic book by starchitect office BIG, explaining some of their projects. I'm not a big fan of BIG (they give too simplistically clean answers IMHO, and live a bit in a fairy world), yet this book is pretty cool, it gives a lot of insights about their design process, and, let's face it, they might actually be right somewhere...

Cities for people by Jan Gehl. This is a pretty recent book (you'll find it in any bookstore at the time I'm writing this), which I believe illustrates very well, although it's more talking about city space than building space, the shift that architecture is currently doing. We don't need more posh, nice-looking buildings in a city anymore. We need to think about people. That's what this book is about. Highly meaningful.

Structural engineering

Concreto armado eu te amo by Manoel Henrique Campos Botelho: Sorry, portuguese only, I don't think there is a translation. This book is a really awesome, gentle, architects-friendly introduction to reinforced concrete. In my opinion something architects should know a lot more about than they currently do. I love this book. I've never seen any equivalent in other languages, unfortunately.

Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction by Barry Onouye: This is a very good book because instead of the usual theoretical stuff it is very Architecture-oriented. There is an online version on slideshare.

The Civil Engineering Handbook by W F Chen: Honestly, this one is too heavy for me. However, it is widespread on the net and basically tells everything there is to know... Maybe even too much...

Sustainability, green and community design

The Barefoot Architect by Johan van Lenghen: A wonderful handbook for community-driven green building, written by a guy who has experienced everything he describes first-hand. Nothing about flashy LEED specifications and latest solar panels technology here, rather simple techniques that can be used by normal people to build sustainable buildings.

Online courses


Wikiversity Architecture School: Don't expect anything very complete here, but it's a very good introduction to the family of things that you need to learn. I contributed a bit to it in the past...

Architecture Academy (introduced above): This is a pretty bright idea of Andrew Price. The idea is to teach you both notions or architecture and rendering at the same time, as if it is one same subject, using Blender. It is not free, however.

Archdaily has a good list of free online architecture courses. There is more here. A famous one that is there since a long time is the MIT. However, this is a whole new thing, and probably at the moment you shouldn't rely on these to get a complete formation to architecture. Rather take them as starting points.

Latest find: edx.org. This place gathers a lot of interesting courses.

Websites and other online resources


Architecture in general

ArchDaily: This is today's most active architecture website (there are many others, such as architizer, archello, etc, but archdaily has a crazily awful LOT of stuff). I highly recommend you subscribe to it, and keep a look at every project (the texts are often written by the architects themselves, and are not always worth the reading). There are a lot of new projects, several every day, some good, some bad, but it is an excellent exercise to look at them and try to find things you find good and things you find bad. Discussing this with others helps a lot. I also often use archdaily to find references and examples of a certain building type (school, library, etc). Your capacity to find a solution for a specific problem often builds on pieces of existing solutions and examples you saw before.

Life of an Architect: This is Bob Borson's blog, where he tells about the everyday stuff that happens when you work as an architect: Problems, existential questions, practical details, etc. Always a very funny and interesting read.

ArchViz

If you are interested in ArchViz (I hope you are by now!), one of the most famous places is cgarchitect. There is not much learning material there, but looking at some of the most gorgeous images and trying to copy something from them has always been a big way of learning for me... CGarchitect also has a lot of learning resources, both free and paid.

Ronen Bekerman's blog: This guy is one of the big archviz gurus. He (and other guest writers) writes detailed articles about his work, that are one of the most amazing archviz resources I know...

Alex Hogrefe's blog is exactly at the crossing of architecture and archviz that we were talking about. Highly interesting.

There is much, much on the net related to archviz, simply look for "archviz tutorials".

Sketching

Sketching tutorials are also easy to find on the net. I found two pretty good examples from land8 here and here, there is also some interesting contents here, although it concerns not only sketching but also traditional technical drawing, which can be useful to you too.

Alphonso Dunn's youtube channel: This is a fantastic resource for hand sketching, full of different and useful techniques. Specially don't miss the awesome 3-part urban sketching tutorials.

Structural engineering and mechanics of materials

A foreword note here, this is a vast subject, usually badly explained (most architects only understand a very small part of the matter). There is very little learning material on the net that is specifically aimed at civil engineering and architecture that is not overwhelmingly complex. I'll list a couple of good things I found, but you'll likely need to dig further by yourself here.

Complete Mechanics of Materials course: This one is pretty complete, but not easy to follow.

Introduction to Structural Mechanics: A very good course aimed at scenery design, but that works pretty well for architecture too. It also contains a quick refresher on basic maths, always useful...

Course de statique et résistance des matériaux: A complete and pretty good course from the Lyon university (in french).

Physique pour l'architecte: Another nice andvery complete course (in French) from Tunis university.

Checklists

There are a lot of checklists for architectural design on the net, that try to gather all the things you must think to when doing an architecture project. Of course this is vastly subjective, each architect will probably find something very important that others will disregard. I found a couple of nice ones, for example this one or that one, but you will find many others by searching for things like "architectural design checklist" on the net.

Real life


This is a very important part. Explore cities and buildings. Find good architecture in your city or nearby. If you are going to another city, check on the net about interesting architecture in that city, and try to visit the buildings (not always possible of course). Again, this works better when done with other people. Also, from now on, dedicate yourself to walking. By far my favorite way of getting new ideas is walking (in cities or in the wild, you learn different things in each). Walking in cities while keeping your eye open to your surroundings is a precious and free continuous lesson. Look at the buildings, the people, where they gather, where they don't go, what places are cool, what places aren't, and why, these things will be highly useful to you at some point.

Urban sketching: This is a great way to train hand sketching. In many cities, groups of people gather regularly to sit together in some place to draw just anything around: Buildings, people, cars, pissing dogs, whatever. Don't be shy, many people there are newbies too, and drawing together with other (and specially some experienced) people will boost your skills amazingly. Look on the net, usually these groups have facebook pages or blogs where they plan their next events.

Competitions: Architects are crazy about architecture competitions. These are traditionally organized by a person or organization who wishes to make a building, but instead of selecting one architect, would like to see many ideas from many architects. Usually they ask participants to submit a project up to a certain level of development, then select a couple of entries, which are paid to develop further, then finally select a winner who gets the full commission. Unless you win, you earn nothing from a competition, but it's anyway a great way to test and show your ideas and make yourself known. There are many websites that list architecture competitions, such as Death by Architecture. Beware, though, that nowadays some firms are doing business by luring architects into entering competitions, and making them pay for it. Flee away from competitions that are not free to enter, where the organizer is not the owner of the future building, or where it is not clear if the building will actually be built.

Real work of architects: Architects are usually pretty secretive and afraid that someone might steal their ideas, but some visionary people are trying to change that and publish their work files online, like Opening Design or Regis Nde Tene (and, hopefully soon, ourselves). These are highly precious, direct-from-the-source ways of discovering how things work. They might also be an answer to some questions raised above...



Software


Finally, just a quick note about software, as it is an important matter to me. No need to tell you how to learn how to use a certain piece of software here, as it is by far the easiest thing. Just head to youtube.

What architects use: 2D line-drawing applications (known as CAD) such as AutoCAD, VectorWorks, MicroStation, AllPlan (most of these also do 3D nowadays), BIM applications (ironical description: 3D modeling plus a lot of dingles and bells for architects. More serious description: 3D modeling with added meaning and lots of additional layers of information) such as Revit or ArchiCAD or some very good Rhino plugins, rendering tools such as 3DS Max + VRay (all-time big favorite combo among architects)

What I use: Blender (opensource, generic, fast 3D, for the first phases of design, also used for rendering), FreeCAD (opensource, I'm one of its developers, I used it to turn the dirty models from first phases into construction drawings, but it's taking more and more place in the whole workflow), DraftSight (free but not open-source, 2D line drawing), plus a couple of others like Inkscape, Gimp, IfcPlusPlus, LibreOffice. That's basically all you need. All free, all open-source.

I wrote a tutorial about doing architecture modeling with FreeCAD if you are interested.

Check what you like best, but I highly recommend you to stick as much as possible with open-source tools (Blender and FreeCAD basically). Big CAD and BIM vendors (Autodesk or Nemetschek/Graphisoft for example) often have deals with arch schools, where they provide their software for free for students and professors. When you get out of school, you are then a perfect slave, fully addicted to the products of one vendor, and they can do what they want with you (An average license for BIM software is about 6000 US dollars...). Going for open-source tools is a bit more work (they are less comfortable and usually not as "finished" as commercial tools), but will make you learn to work with generic tools, workflows and formats, instead of binding yourself to a commercial solution.




in categories  architecture  projects  blender  works  permalink:  120   posted on 23.09.2015 2:20
From Yorik

Pirituba services center





This is a project we did for a small services center in São Paulo. The ground floor hosts three big stores, with different ceiling heights depending on their position on the site and their entrance level, and two upper floors of offices space, with open plan, dividable according to future necessities.

This project is based on several concepts that are precious to us, that all aim at reinforcing the interdependence between the different systems, like between the people of the city and the project, or between the users of the project and the vegetation.



The project is intentionally simple in its form and functioning. A simple concrete structure, without finishing, supports two slabs. On these two slabs, light metallic boxes host the offices, with open spaces left between them, that become terraces. Everything is protected from the sun by green roofs and curtains.

A fundamental point of the project is that it enlarges the public space. Instead of showing a simple facade along the sidewalk, it brings people inside the terrain, and creates a series of small additional differentiated spaces, that bet on diversity instead of area, like a parklet.



The central space, although occupied by parking, offers other interesting features: Its size and the fact that it is in direct contact with the ground allows to plant large trees, that protect the whole public space beneath from
sun and rain, and bring to the offices the marvellous quality of being "inside the trees".

The setbacks at the sides and bottom of the terrain are obviously left free and planted, which, we think, is the true meaning of these setbacks, to permit natural ecosystems to connect with each other and flow around buildings.



The vertical circulation, between the parking level, the ground floor and the office levels, is open, and made with industrial equipment (stairs, bridges and elevator), that can be fully mounted in factory and installed on site in one effort.

The whole project is more designed to be a system, configurable and reprogrammable, than a finished, static and immutable building.











Chech the blend file here

in categories  architecture  projects  works  permalink:  114   posted on 15.09.2015 2:34
From Yorik

Mixed use, Itu, Brazil





This project gathers in a same site three different uses: a residential building, a hotel, and a convention center.

The client being a real-estate investor, it was required, as usual in that context, to build as much as possible, in other words, to use the maximal construction area permitted by law. This produces a project with a lot of construction.



This high density becomes even more problematic with the approximation of very different and somewhat incompatible functions.

We choose to articulate these three uses around a strong, complex and catalyst public space: A succession of squares and ramps, that travel the distance and the difference of height between inferior corner (the main access) of the terrain and the higher level, where the project connects to the shopping center on the neighbouring terrain.





This way, the whole project does not bet anymore on a low density character, that would be expected for this scarcely built part of the city, but assumes a frank, higher-density urban character. The proximity of functions that seem at first sight discording, like a residencial building and a convention center, ends up giving additional qualities to the whole project, like an urban center.

The project recreates, therefore, some of the conditions that make people look for housing in animated urban centers, to benefit from the cultural, commercial and leisure options around.

To reach that objective, the projects bets mainly on its central public space. It serves as a glue between the different parts of the compound, permits the installation of commerce, restaurants, bars or coffee shops in the inferior levels of the hotel and the convention centre, and also directly on the public squares, all accessible to everybody. It also fosters interactions between the different functions, parts of the hotel can be used by the convention center and vice-versa.





Inspired by Amanda Burden (head of urban development of New York under Bloomberg), the project also tries to create, within this connection, a public space that people want to use: with a lot of vegetation, somewhere to sit and something to do...

Although the high density of the project and the subterranean parking do not permit very tall trees in the central part of the terrain, we tried to use as much as possible the variation of levels, building heights, voids, volumes, openings present in the project to achieve similar qualities: Many different places and spots, with different lighting and sun exposure, different
views, different uses, different orientations, to recreate the conditions of a complex and variate life.

Finally, this central space creates a new pedestrian connection between the shopping mall next and the lower side of the site, increasing the flow of people not only to the mall, but to the site itself. Both flows enhance each other, bringing life to the whole area, ensuring safety and recreation for the residential building, and consumers and general public for
the hotel, convention center and shopping mall.

This shared connection serves as common access to all the buildings, even though each of them has separate entrances, located on the ground level and on the underground parking.



blend Download blend file here

in categories  freecad  opensource  architecture  permalink:  95   posted on 17.08.2015 2:43
From Yorik

Preço de software BIM no Brasil



Abaixo está uma tabela com preços de software BIM para arquitetura. Incluí aqui somente software que tem suporte ao formato IFC (tanto leitura como gravação). Sem isso, acho que concordamos que não podemos chamar algo de BIM. Também retirei as soluções restritas a um certo tipo de construção (como DDS-CAD). As aplicações abaixo são as que sobraram, que permitem modelar a principio qualquer tipo de projeto, com qualquer técnica constutiva, gerar desenhos 2D, e importar/exportar modelos com outro software BIM usando o formato IFC.

Note que a maioria das empresas que desenvolvem esses softwares não divulgam os preços, o que está indicado abaixo, quando não informado no site, foi conseguido com usuários, em forums, e pode estar um pouco aproximativo.

Também tem algumas diferenças entre o que está vendido para o preço indicado, mas normalmente significa: o preço de uma primeira instalação, sem limite de uso, mas sem atualizações incluídas.

Não farei aqui comparativo qualitativo entre todos eles (num outro post talvez?), mas tem diferenças muito grandes. Aconselho analisar bem…

Software Preço Observações
Revit R$ 20 853,27 Vende direto no site da Autodesk. Existe uma versão LT mas que não vendem no Brasil.
ArchiCAD R$ 24 951,90 Não vende diretamente no Brasil. Este é o preço na Europa. Tem uma versão “solo” para metade do preço.
AllPlan R$ 23 195,70 Não vende diretamente no Brasil, este é o preço na Europa.
Digital project R$ 30 000,00+ Não vende diretamente no Brasil nem online. Preço não divulgado, mas bem acima dos R$ 30 000.
Vectorworks R$ 9 037,35 Não vende diretamente no Brasil, este é o preço nos USA.
Microstation Architecture R$ 24 273,70 Não vende diretamente no Brasil. Preço do antigo microstation + triforma, agora vendido como um software só (Bentley architecture)
4M IDEA PRO R$ 1 044,65 Vende direto do site da 4MSA.
Softtech Spirit R$ 21 667,30 Não vende diretamente no Brasil nem online.
RhinoBIM R$ 6 582,11 Vende direto do site. Preço do Rhino + RhinoBIM.
Sketchup PRO R$ 2 437,82 Vende direto no site.
FreeCAD Gratuito Software livre.
ProgeCAD Architecture R$ 6 149,00 Vende direto no site.
VisualARQ R$ 5 189,07 Vende direito no site. Preço do Rhino + VisualARQ.

in categories  architecture  projects  permalink:  36   posted on 13.03.2015 4:26
From Yorik

PACE



This is a reposting of a 2008 project, because its original home at
http://www.openarchitecturenetwork.org/node/687 is threatened with extinction...



This project for a new space created to shelter the activities of the Pé de Arte, Cultura e Educação (PACE) NGO, made little after the birth of the NGO, has a very simple fundamental idea. A single, polyvalent, extensible open space.

It is designed to shelter a single group of 15 to 30 children, and offer to both the children and the adults, e different and constantly renovated experience, a large vision of the universe, and a strong connection with nature.

The very restricted budget of a newborn NGO, instead of harming the project, reinforced its simplicity and flexibility: It is thought to evolve along the development of the NGO, growing together, and gaining diversification.

At the end of its use, when the NGO grows and doesn't fit the place anymore, the project becomes a house, and starts a new life.















See also:

technical assessment

program

preliminary project

final project

in categories  architecture  projects  permalink:  35   posted on 13.03.2015 4:10
From Yorik

Kallari Chocolate Factory



This is a reposting of a 2008 project, because its original home on http://openarchitecturenetwork.org/node/1486 is threatened by extinction...



A COMMUNITY FACTORY

The new Kallari chocolate factory not only is a new turn in the life of the Kallari community, but also represents a very significant fact for all Latin America. For centuries, coffee and cacao industry has meant prosperity for a small group of investors and poverty for the vast majority of the continent.

This new factory represents a new turn in this industry. Not only this is a cacao industry owned and made by the people, but it is also managed and run as a community, not as a firm.

Our proposal for the new factory is, before anything else, a shelter for community activity. Being a chocolate factory, a crafts market, new activities we don't know about yet, this is the place where all this must happen: under one big roof.

Under that roof, the spaces are designed like a space station: independent modules, connected by bridges, doors, ramps or tubes. There is plenty of space left. New modules can be added later. But the objective is also to offer vast, covered open areas. Cacao processing and chocolate making is an activity that has traditionally a large open-air part, like stocking and drying, while the main factory module provides the conditions needed for finer chocolate manufacturing.

People here don't work like in a traditional factory, where there are bosses and workers, it is more something at the crossing between a highly trained space station crew and a community market. The factory is owned by everyone, and everyone must learn and know how it works, how to behave, how are the procedures. There is no special visitors area. When you visit the factory, you must adopt the same rules as everyone else.

Finally, the projects also adopts a passive attitude, trying to minimize its presence on this magnificent site, and provide a structure for more advanced experiments, like solar energy generation, recycling, researching or computer teaching. The last module of the project is the life-support module, which provides accommodation for resident factory workers as well as prestigious guests like students, scientists or chocolate experts.






in categories  architecture  3d  blender  works  permalink:  26   posted on 16.02.2015 24:35
From Yorik

Old projects, new images



We use to make 3D images of old projects of some of our clients, to give their websites a bit of a refresh, and we don't do it for ourselves? No sir, no more! Here is a bit of revamp on two oldies but goodies of our projects, Casa GL and the PACE ONG.

Casa GL:











PACE:











And the plans, that I think I actually never published here... Justice be done:






in categories  architecture  projects  works  3d  permalink:  106   posted on 29.07.2014 5:29
From Yorik

Prefeitura de Belo Horizonte



versão em português aqui



This is a project we did for a competition for the new city hall of Belo Horizonte (Brazil). It didn't win (The link shows the winning entries), but we are pretty happy about the project anyway. The full presentation boards are at the bottom of this article, as well as the blender model. Below is the explication text and some of the images from the boards.

A hyphen at city scale





The main idea of this proposal is a project that works like a big hyphen, joining two different urban systems that until now were totally disconnected because of the intense road network that occupies the boundary area: the regular grid of the city centre and the Lagoinha neighbourhood. The connection of these two parts also symbolically reunifies the entire city with its centre.

To function as a hyphen, it is necessary for the project to overflow its boundaries. It needs to invade its direct surroundings to "reach" the parts to be reunited.



This expansion out of the limits of the terrain, this physical movement made by the project to connect the parts of the city, generates a public space that is multiple and complex. When the building physically encompasses the bus terminal, links to the Praça do Peixe with the footbridge, creates an exhibition space on he boundary, and allows the public to circulate on the gardens created by the project, it brings people to gather on the main square, which also offers access to the metro and the future bus terminal.

It is at this confluence of paths, at the intersection between spaces that they also amplify, and create a synergy of different people, and the energy coming from these encounters strengthens these very spaces, and gives them a bigger meaning in the whole city.



Primum non nocere





Or "before anything else, not make things worse", is the first principle of bioethics taught to new physicians, part of the Hippocratic Oath. It is also one of the main concepts of this proposal. The place of the project, in the middle of a high concentration of roads and viaducts, became the centre of a vast area damaged by consecutive operations, each one apparently made with the aim of solving the problem caused by the previous ones.



This proposal breaks this vicious circle and sees its surroundings as a fragile but functional situation. Therefore, it does not modify any vehicle circulation, included inside the project area. It only creates multiple, thin pedestrian links with its immediate surroundings, opening breaches that foment small events around the project, and incentives, like acupuncture, the public to deviates from its path and take possession of the space.

Bioclimatism and sustentability





The main concept behind the constructive system of the administrative centre is to provide an impeccable bioclimatic behaviour, not so much based on high-tech technology, expensive and in many cases origins of new problems, but rather on classical and simple techniques, like double facade, open concrete elements, cross ventilation and the correct positioning of the building itself.

The use of electrical energy is reduced to the minimum, as much for lighting (all facades have complete openings, from floor to ceiling, without the need for reflexive glass), as especially for climate control (natural ventilation possible in the whole building, with ventilated facades and local control by the users (by simply opening or closing parts of the window frames).



The big portion of green space reclaimed by the removal of the parking space and part of its underground, as the many areas covered with green roofs, raise drastically the rainwater absorption capacity of the plot and also help to lower the temperature. The addition of new vegetation, including big sized, reinforces the fragmented vegetation network of the immediate surroundings, and turns what was a concrete slab into a green space.

Complex facades





The facades are built on a double skin system, using techniques that are common in Brazil: the internal skin is made with common framework, from floor to ceiling, and can be partially or totally opened. The external skin is made of hollowed concrete elements of different sizes. These elements also support vegetation ,that hangs to the outside of the building through them.

The external skin filters and prevents sun rays to strike directly inside work spaces, but leaves direct views totally open for who is inside the building. The inner skin gives the users a precise and localised control over natural ventilation, thanks to the different ways to open the windows. It also features a flexible positioning permitting variations on the floor plans, which leaves interesting residual spaces that are used for resting and gathering.

The facades, viewed from the outside, works as a mirror, or a gigantic photography of the urban surrounding as it stands today: the placement of the different types of concrete elements is defined by the silhouette of the surroundings (skyline) projected onto the facades. A mathematical algorithm distributes the elements along this silhouette.



By unique circumstance, this skyline also provides exactly and rigorously the bioclimatic standard suitable for this situation. The facades that are oriented to the South, that receive little direct sunlight, are more open, because in that direction are many high buildings. The north faces, that receive more sun, are more open, with the surroundings in that direction composed almost exclusively of small constructions.

These hollowed elements also have a strong link with the modernist identity of the city of Belo Horizonte, but in this case they are used in a more contemporary and parametric way.

The facades of 1st to 4th floors, in contrast, because they are much better protected from the sun by their elevation and orientation, and also because they are closer to the public, are treated in a very different and resolutely contemporary way, with glass an metal. This also provides more transparency between the street and the interior.

Ecology and education



Finally, the unrestricted access to the gardens for workers and the general public and the transformation of damaged areas into effectively reusable green spaces allows to personally experiment the different techniques used, like the double skin or the green roofs. This gives the project an important educative function, based on the personal experience of the users.

The building and its surroundings



Another main axis of this proposal is the way the building adjusts itself to the city. The new administrative centre is an organ that serves the city, and, because of this, cannot supplant it. The building must bow to it, be included into the city, so it offers to the populations benefits that are not only social and political, but also architectural and urban.

This way, the building does not get higher than any other, opens space for the central square, and pushes itself to one side of the terrain, peering only above Avenida Afonso Pena, to liberate the vision to the neighbouring historical heritage, bends its facade to maintain vision axes from Rua Saturnino de Brito, and stretches in the direction of the Praça do Peixe, creating a new visual mark for who is travelling toward the city centre, coming from the highways. All these movements are the result of the search for integration and magnification of the public space as a whole.

The structure



The general structure of the building, although simple and classical (a grid of concrete columns and an array of beams that can be of concrete or metallic, and concrete slabs), introduces an obvious difficulty, which is the passing of the columns through the existing building of the bus terminal. This difficulty, however, is mostly compensated by the fact that the new metro line below the terrain already forces the use of very deep foundations.

Because of that deepness, the area of influence of these foundations is a lot deeper than the foundations of the bus terminal, which are above the metro tunnel. The columns of the new building have therefore no structural influence on the existing building. Both systems cross each other, each one sitting on its own layer. There are in the world many examples of similar problems solved with success, such as the Hearst Building in New York or the Exchange Building in Vancouver.

The drilling of the roof of the bus terminal, to allow the columns to pass through, is a localised, minimal operation, easy to solve technically.

Because of its simplicity, the proposed structural system of this project also has much flexibility. Instead of the 3-columns grid, a 2-columns solution can be studied, and the spacing adapted to the existing foundations, to avoid interference.

Additional structural reinforcements are possible in different points of the project, for example to allow bigger cantilevers, like at the north extremity of the administrative building.

The bus terminal



The proposed project and the treatment it gives to the existing building of the bus terminal deviate from the classical and rigid attitudes usually taken when dealing with historical heritage buildings. Those are frequently considered sacred and untouchable, even if this causes them to loose all their life. This project favours a more dynamic integration that incorporates it to a system, and gives it a new life.

The building of the bus terminal becomes, in this proposal, integrated to a system formed by the administrative centre, by the large public areas, and by the square that takes the place of the old parking space. The architectural value of the bus terminal, as well as the other heritage buildings around, is gains visibility from the contrast with the other parts, and its impact in the city is raised because of the prominent position it keeps in this proposal.

The necessary physical intervention needed by this proposal, the drilling of some of the elements of the roof to permit the passage of the support columns of the administrative centre, is minimal. It has almost no visual impact and leaves intact the reading and understanding of the architectural system of the bus terminal.

Even with this contrasted juxtaposition, the new administrative building shows a special care for the existing building: it never invades it, it rather integrates it by touching it lightly. It is a translation in architectural language of the word respect.

Extension of the public sphere





One of the main focus points of this proposal is the broad public access to the premises. Even if most of the program is private, this projects tries to widely expand the offer of interesting and quality public space at this point of the city.

Apart from the existing access to the bus terminal, the general public also earns accesses to the main square, on the current parking lot, which provides further access to the rest of the project: the ground floor, which houses the reception and services to the citizen, and the "hanging gardens" formed by the green roofs above the inferior floors (1 to 4). Some specific functions of the building, like the auditorium, can also be accessed directly from the outside, when necessary, using the many stairs and escalators that cross the gardens.

The upper roof deck of the building provides a sky garden, a sightseeing point over the Lagoinha neighbourhood and the northern part of the city. It is also accessible by the public, via a dedicated panoramic elevator.

The footbridge that binds the administrative centre to the Praça do Peixe and the exhibitions space, crossing above the roof of the bus terminal, provides the unique experience to discover an architectural heritage building from an unnatural and impressive point of view.



This proposal also tries to create more links between the city inhabitants and the location of the project, with new pedestrian paths, inserted below the viaducts, connecting islands and blocks in a big network that spreads from the smaller squares and enlargements that already exist in the surroundings of the project.











Also check the blender model or the FreeCAD model if you want a closer look!

in categories  architecture  idsampa  projects  permalink:  23   posted on 11.02.2014 4:12
From Yorik

Reuso dos recuos



Uma dessas coisas péssimas que fazem as construtoras de prédios de alto padrão, quando conseguem juntar vários terrenos, é descartar as frentes de rua que não são a entrada principal. Resultado, como aqui (rua Augusta, a altura do n° 852, fundo de um prédio na rua Bela Cintra n° 201), temos uma fachada de fundos, não usada, sem acesso, com um paredão cego que tentaram "mascarar" com uma pintura bizarra, que abriga 4 ou 5 andares de estacionamento (fazer estacionamento assim é muitíssimo mais barato que enterrado, não preciso explicar mais). Como o código de obras proíbe ter fachadas cegas a rua assim, os autores do projeto provavelmente acharam essa façanha de recuar a fachada para o projeto ser aprovado.



O tipo de solução que adotou este prédio é altamente tóxica para a rua. Ela cria um "buraco negro", um espaço onde ninguém mora, ninguém entra e sai, e na frente do qual, instintivamente, você não gosta de passar a noite. Este pedaço de rua Augusta, literalmente foi morto. Uma rua deve ficar viva, é isso que garante toda a qualidade dela, a segurança, o tecido social, etc. Devem ter pessoas que moram la, e gente que não mora ali mas que vem aproveitar das coisas que tem ali, por exemplo comprar coisas. Isso é basicamente o que ensina Jane Jacobs. Em frente a essa fachada não acontecem nenhuma dessas atividades. É morta.

Pensei que poderíamos facilmente reaproveitar esses espaços. Tem ali 4 ou 5 metros de profundidade, teria como fazer um enorme quantidade de coisas num espaço assim. Os moradores do prédio, que, com certeza, estarão pagando prestações salgadas durante os próximos 20 ou 30 anos, veriam com bons olhos uma possível atividade ali, que daria uma renda ao condomínio sem incomodar eles. Imaginei uma construção, feita de containers metálicos reusados, que poderia abrigar uma loja, ou um café, um restaurante, um espaço cultural, ou outras atividades do mesmo gênero. A construção toda ficaria descolada do chão, de maneira a manter sua permeabilidade.



Esse tipo de solução transformaria facilmente um ato nocivo para a rua em ato favorável, e em vez de ter paredões na rua, teríamos gente que entra e sai, que conversa, que dá uma olhada na calçada a noite, etc. Além disso, os lugares feitos de containers são extremamente legais. Veja por exemplo a famosa loja Freitag em Zürich e vários outros (tem um famoso em São Paulo também).

in categories  architecture  projects  permalink:  387   posted on 11.12.2013 20:36
From Yorik

Yaroslavl Spartacus Alive competition





This is a proposal for the Yaroslavl Spartacus Alive architecture competition, that asked for solutions for a very nice and strategic spot in the middle of the historical and UNESCO-protected city of Yaroslavl in Russia. Our proposal didn't win, although it got shortlisted and is selected for the Yaroslavl Architecture Biennale.



THE CONCEPT





The arena is left almost entirely to its current function: An open space, fit for sports, recreation, shows, and any other spontaneous use that may arise. There, three new «buildings» are added: two above ground, for exhibitions of any type, and one underground, for archaeological exhibitions.

Additionally, with the creation of a grid of art and entertainment points (sculptures, architectural «follies», art installations, etc...) the arena also gains a prominent artistic role, and becomes a «patch» that links the two parts (north and south of the Kotorosl river) of the city.

The whole design is a free-form, adaptable system, made to be further adapted to the space demands of museum uses, and to the archaeological findings on the site.



THE ART GRID LINKING THE CITY





The new arena marks the end of the historic centre with an art and entertainment grid which spreads on the park and the river making a link between the northern and southern parts of the city . This grid is made of totems made by different artists, from sculptors to painters, from architects to designers. Each one changes in form and use depending of its location.

Each totem can be an art installation or a sculpture. They can be sometimes a map which tells visitors about the city, sometimes an historic or artistic description of the site or building. Some of them can be bigger like architectural «follies» and to be a point of encounter: a coffee shop or a small snack bar, or an area with benches for resting, or marking a nice point of view over surrounding buildings. All of them are colored in the color of Yaroslavl: blue, to make a visual link for the people who are walking around the city.

These totems act like a group of blue fingers emerging from the center of the arena site and telling people what is nice to see and do in Yaroslavl. As doing this the grid transforms the new arena in the core of a link between the two sides of the river.

THE HISTORICAL LINK AND CURRENT USES





The new arena covers and spreads around archaeological remnants, but the new buildings are projected to adapt their forms to the historical site and the archaeological findings. They aren't built into the ravine, they just hover above it. In case of new archaeological findings, the walls and floors can become windows, showcasing the archaeological assets, or deform, to accommodate what is found below.

The underground building is made mainly for archaeological exhibitions.

The two buildings above ground are totally multi-functional, and can hold cultural events, temporary exhibitions or museum collections.

These two buildings are united by a huge square where people can gather for a match, a coffee, an exhibition or just a talk. The project keeps the new arena area as an encounter space and preserves the sportive soul of the place, respecting its current uses and major function in the city.

The square is easily transformed in a big concert area, extended by the walkable roofs. The roofs are painted by the green and flowered areas that are extensions of the parks that surround the arena.

The ensemble of these buildings and grids makes a great blend, combining all kinds of activities like art, sports, history and shows in the same place. This mixture is essential to keep the animation, occupying the area during the whole year and spawning all other kind of spontaneous activities.

The interaction of these activities creates a synergy between them: at the same time people who are invited to the formal exhibitions can be part of the spontaneous activities. People spending time around the square, looking for some grid installation or participating to some sportive event can be potential public for the more formal activities.

So it creates an endless recurrent invitation, generating and supporting the life of the place, which can only exist if it gathers many users.


in categories  architecture  projects  freecad  permalink:  386   posted on 11.12.2013 20:09
From Yorik

Florianopolis Mercado Público competition





This is a competition project for the public market of Florianópolis, Brazil. The program asked for a solution to cover the central open space of the market, an historical building located in the center of the city. Unfortunately (but quite expected) our proposal didn't win (winners here), but who has a sharp eye can see we made it to the final designs somehow



Our proposal is inspired by theater scenography, with a visual identity that is very different from the surrounding architecture, so it becomes unique and significant, and also achieves the reversibility and retractablility required by the project.

Composed by 30 mobile metallic panels (each one 4.30m by 8.15m) connected by a central metallic structure, it is thought as a decentralized roofing system, where each part can be moved manually, individually or in trios, by the market vendors.



Each part can be activated by individual crank systems, and can be elevated at an angle between 25 to almost 90 degrees. Between these two, any position is possible, resulting in a rich diversity of combinations, light and shadow situations and ventilation behaviours.

The manual operation is possible through a system of counterweights, placed in the central part of the structure, which allow a person of normal weight to operate it with relative facility. A pair of locks allows to fix each panel in a certain position and turn it resistant to winds.

When all the 30 panels are down, they cover almost 100% of the central open area.





Total water-tightness is not an objective of this proposal. The draining of rainwater is made from the central part of the new structure, while the panels extend above the existing roof, without touching it. This way, while gathering its own water, the roof leaves small vertical openings at its border, between the panels, and between the roof and the accesses. These openings allow a basic quantity of natural light to get through, even when the roof is fully closed.



When fully open, the roof keeps the central space totally open in almost all of its area. To take advantage of the constant and random play of light and shadow that the metallic panels can provide, we decided not to use any transparent part.

This way, with the movement of the panels, each market vendor becomes an active creator of the everyday variation of visual atmosphere that the new roof will provide on the public market.



Full competition panels are available here, and the FreeCAD file here.

in categories  inthepress  architecture  projects  permalink:  366   posted on 04.11.2013 22:33
From Yorik

Costa do Ipê na revista "Mar"



O nosso projeto para o shopping Costa do Ipê saiu na revista Mar, editada por Marc e Sílvia, os idealizadores do shopping:













OPINIÃO DOS ARQUITETOS


“Um projeto generoso com a cidade de Marília e seus moradores.” É assim que os arquitetos Yorik van Havre e Maíra Zasso definem o Costa do Ipê Parque Shopping

HUMANO, INUSITADO E SUSTENTÁVEL


“Esperamos que a arquitetura provoque e desperte sensações nos frequentadores”

Yorik van Havre e Maíra Zasso

A dupla de arquitetos – ele belga, ela gaúcha, ambos radicados há seis anos em São Paulo – teve como inspiração uma série de referências, em especial, o modernismo paulista. “Nós gostamos muito do contraste entre o concreto e as plantas, como se via muito na arquitetura modernista paulista”, diz Yorik.

Nas fachadas do centro comercial, os arquitetos incorporaram telas maleáveis que recebem trepadeiras que formam cortinas verdes, criando um horizonte verde tanto para quem está trabalhando nas lojas quanto para quem está visitando o lugar. “Encontrar uma cortina verde causa uma surpresa muito positiva e acolhedora para as pessoas.”, ressalta Maíra.

Esse princípio orgânico que rege todo o empreendimento está presente também na ocupação da área total, que segue uma escala humana e acolhedora. Os quatro volumes ocuparão apenas 6 mil de uma área total de 20 mil metros quadrados de terreno. “Não chegamos nem perto do limite máximo de ocupação. Dessa maneira temos um baixo impacto para a cidade. Também não haverá estacionamento subterrâneo e , assim, teremos pouca movimentação de terra” conta o belga Yorik.

Praças e jardins, que abrigam restaurantes ao ar livre também servem de espaço para apresentações de música e encontros. “ A ideia é que as pessoas caminhem livremente por entre os prédios. Há um percurso a ser descoberto, com elementos surpresa entre as áreas. Por exemplo, não planejamos uma única praça de alimentação, mas sim bares e restaurantes espalhados pelo complexo, explica Maíra. O shopping se revela como um ponto de encontro, um lugar com potencial para uma vida interessante e não apenas um centro de compras. “Esperamos que a arquitetura provoque e desperte sensações nos frequentadores”, complementa a arquiteta gaúcha.

Texto: Simone Fonseca

Foto: Ludovic Carème


in categories  idsampa  architecture  projects  permalink:  324   posted on 12.09.2013 3:01
From Yorik

Proposta para o Parque Augusta



Esta é uma proposta para um terreno muito controverso em São Paulo, conhecido como “parque Augusta”. Esta proposta não foi pedida por ninguém, nem é destinada a ninguém. É apenas uma visão nossa, que compartilhamos.

Existem grandes interesses comerciais e corporativos em cima desse terreno, por causa do seu tamanho e da sua excelente localização (perto do centro, perto da rua Augusta, perto da avenida Paulista). Do outro lado, existe um movimento popular já bem organizado tentando transformar esta área em parque público.



A briga por esse terreno já é bem antiga, no blog acima e nos outros sites que ele indica tem bastante material sobre o assunto. Aqui está o que pensamos a respeito:

1. O terreno tem uma enorme área coberta com árvores antigas, que deve sem nenhuma dúvida ser preservada. Um pedaço de “mata” como esse em pleno centro de São Paulo é valioso demais para a cidade e por isso deve ser usado por todos.

2. Confiar em alguma empresa para proteger essa área é altamente arriscado, mesmo obrigando ela a proteger a vegetação (o que já é o caso). É muito fácil eles contornarem a lei e removerem pedacinhos “acidentalmente”, sobretudo visto que cada metro quadrado construível tem um valor muito alto.

3. A localização é boa para empreendimentos imobiliários, mas não muito boa para um parque. A razão principal é que tem muito poucas pessoas circulando em volta dele, pouco comércio e ruas quase desertas (fora a rua Augusta, claro).

4. Já existem vários espaços públicos muito bons muito perto (praça Roosevelt, praça Dom José Gaspar). A praça Roosevelt recentemente passou por uma reforma que achamos exemplar, e o risco é muito alto de prejudicar a nova vida dela.

5. Querer que a prefeitura assuma (desaproprie) o terreno para que ele vire um parque não nos parece muito sustentável... Cada vez que temos um problema na cidade vamos precisar da intervenção divina do prefeito? Um pedaço de cidade deveria poder evoluir no bom sentido sem precisar de uma operação médica para mantê-lo vivo.

6. O principal problema das empresas é que enxergam esse terreno como uma montanha de dinheiro. Elas pensam: “imaginem quantos mil metros quadrados poderiamos construir ali”. Portanto, ninguém está interessado em construir algo pequeno. “Porque se contentar com uns trocados quando se pode obter milhões?” Agora, se o tamanho máximo de construção fosse fixado por lei em algo muito baixo (por exemplo, que se possa contruir em até 20% do terreno), o máximo possível não seria mais esses milhões, e esses “trocados” não pareceriam assim tão pouco...

7. Todo o “fundo” do terreno é um campus da PUC. Se tivesse um acesso entre a PUC e o terreno, permitiria que as pessoas pudessem atravessar até a avenida da Consolação, o que mudaria muito a situação, e um parque começaria a se tornar viável.



Esta proposta nossa é baseada em isso tudo. Pensamos que essa área deve sim virar um parque, e deve ser público. Mas também deve “se virar sozinho” e ser bem diferente da praça Roosevelt, para não competir com ela.

Propomos dividir: destinamos uma área (tracejado vermelho abaixo), de 25 metros de largura, junto à rua Augusta, deixando uma calçada bem larga. Somente nessa área seria possível construir, permitindo uma ou outra excepção, por exemplo, para alguma função que não caberia em 25 metros, como uma sala de espetáculo ou um cinema. Os blocos construidos podem conter qualquer coisa, e ter qualquer forma, e seriam baixos (no máximo 3 ou 4 andares).



O verde escuro, no desenho acima, é a vegetação existente. O verde claro seria complementado, e permitiria fazer várias experiências ecológicas. O impacto construído seria mínimo, mas suficiente para gerar renda, para que alguma empresa decida construir o projeto. Shopping malls com este tamanho existem em todo lugar, o que prova que pode ser lucrativo sim.



Provavelmente São Paulo não precisa de mais um shopping mall, portanto imaginamos algo mais complexo: Uma mistura, um empilhamento de todo tipo de funções: Uma maioria de lojas, claro (é dali que viria a renda do empreendedor, e a rua Augusta é uma rua muito comercial), mas ali também poderiam caber hubs (como este), oficinas e salas no estilo da casa de Cultura Digital, uma creche ou escolinha (tinha uma quase na frente, que foi demolida), uma sala de espetáculos/auditório/cinema que possa ser alugada (aparentemente essas salas fazem muita falta em São Paulo), ou qualquer atividade pública que a prefeitura possa querer por na região (caso eles se empolguem tanto que queiram participar do projeto, quem sabe).

O importante é que sejam funções que tragam pessoas para o parque e ao mesmo tempo se beneficiem das pessoas que estiverem lá, criando uma sinergia entre a parte de parque e a parte construida. Essa é a justificativa principal dessa proposta.



Essa proposta certamente não tem nada de revolucionário. Alias, é uma solução bastante simples e comum. Mas às vezes elas funcionam muito bem...

Mas existem certamente muitas outras ideias diferentes. Um presente bem legal para esse terreno, seria um concurso de arquitetura, onde todos pudessem propor ideias. Com certeza, soluções muitissimo interessantes sairiam de lá.

Enquanto isso, o material que elaboramos nesta proposta está disponível aqui (arquivo do Gimp), com licença Creative Commons. Tem também uma versão pdf deste artigo aqui. Remixe, acrescente a sua, e não deixe de por as suas críticas nos comentários!

in categories  photo  architecture  permalink:  271   posted on 15.06.2013 19:33
From Yorik

Pictures of our Europe trip...







in categories  works  architecture  projects  detail  permalink:  215   posted on 18.02.2013 18:37
From Yorik

Costa do Ipê base project





We finally finished the intermediary part of the Costa do Ipê project, which is used to submit the project to authorities for approval, and will also be used by other designers involved in the project to do their work. All the work was done by a 3-person team (myself, Maíra and our friend Dani, and I am pleased to say a good 60% of it was done on linux platforms. The software used (surely some will ask ) was mainly Blender, FreeCAD and Draftsight.

We are very happy with the result, it represented a lot of work, and is going very much in the direction we wished, thanks principally to the excellent relationship and mutual understanding we have with the owners and masterminds of the project, Sílvia and Marc. The project itself is getting more and more stripped down to its bare function of "life support", which reduces the overall cost (no expensive material, no unnecessary elements) and widens the possibilities of adaptation and evolution (all the vegetation design and the "shading plan" has been left for posterior phases and those are now totally independent of the building structure).

All the project is thought as a low-impact intervention, at economical, social, environmental and urban levels. It relies a lot on pedestrian and public transport transit, offers a large public space, has reduced physical footprint on the terrain, is planned to have a very low energy consumption, reuse most of its water, and to evolve and adapt itself to whatever the socioeconomic situation will require in the next decades... But best of all, and this was thought right from the start by Sílvia and Marc, it is a public space first, before being a shopping mall... There is little doubt that it will be quite successful given the current local socioeconomic situation, but the priorities are in the inverse order as you usually see in similar projects, and it is really thrilling to see happening what might be a completely new way to think and do such projects...













3D images and a video of the projects are available, as well as more information about the design itself.

in categories  projects  architecture  permalink:  83   posted on 29.11.2012 21:44
From Yorik

a House for Grégoire and Lívia


A couple of preliminary ideas for the house of Grégoire and Lívia. The whole argumentation can be read in this pdf document (in portuguese).

The base idea is to separate the house into simple components, so different techniques can be used for each of them, turning the house completely material-independent. This way several bioconstruction options can be studied and used, depending on the local availability, without compromising the whole project.

The project also tries to achieve adequate bioclimatic behaviour and provide the best possible natural airflow, and tends to offer, inside a very simple space, a complex array of uses and grouping, by playing with lots of different levels and blurring the interior/exterior relationships.
























in categories  Architecture  permalink:  7   posted on 09.01.2012 18:59
From Yorik

Análise do projeto nova luz

Tem no momento várias controversas em volta do projeto Nova Luz, no centro de São Paulo. O projeto visa a reformar um grande pedaço do centro, entre a Santa Ifigênia e a Luz, que é considerada uma região com potencial sub-aproveitado, isso é, que é importante porque é no centro, e poderia ajudar a redinamizar a área central toda, mas para isso deveria ter mais moradores, ou seja, mais pessoas "fixas", que ficam ali fora do horário comercial.

A objeção principal é que essa reforma vai desapropriar muita gente e que vários outros não conseguirão mais morar ali, porque o bairro vai "gentrificar", isso é, gente com mais dinheiro vão passar a morar ali e transformar tanto o bairro que vão acabar expulsando os moradores de baixa renda atuais. Também tem sérias objeções contra o mecanismo legal e imobiliário atrás desse projeto.

Tentei analisar o projeto, disponível na integra aqui, e as objeções que tem contra ele, principalmente este vídeo, e construir uma opinião mais justa possível. Contudo, é apena minha opinião, vale o que vale (não muito).

  • Primeiramente, olhei o projeto. O projeto e bastante bom. Não consigo entender porque a Raquel Rolnik chama ele de "tosco" no vídeo. Ele faz uma análise bem completo da situação existente, prevê coisas essenciais como infraestrutura, escolas e outros equipamentos públicos, prevê áreas que deverão ser mantidas acessíveis para pessoas de baixa renda (aluguel baixo, etc), e tem um monte de ideias interessantes como ruas permeáveis, quarterões que podem ser atravessados livremente por pedestres, ciclovias, praças bastante bem projetadas, etc. Francamente, boa sorte para fazer um projeto melhor. Pelo menos as propostas alternativas que vi até agora, como esta, não me parecem propor algo muito diferente...
  • Discordo de uma outra coisa que falam tanto no vídeo como em vários lugares da internet, que é que ali não deve ter um projeto de referência "internacional" mas sim de referência "brasileira". É claro que na arquitetura e no urbanismo tem uma parte local. Tem coisas que se fazem na Suécia que não podem nem devem ser feitas na Indonésia, todo mundo entende isso. Mas a arquitetura também tem uma parte universal. Porque um Indonésio não teria direito às mesmas condições que um Sueco? Por acaso o Sueco tem necessidades diferentes? Deve viver em uma cidade diferente? Acho que São Paulo é uma cidade de porte mundial, e podemos sim comparar as soluções propostas aqui com o que se faz em megalópoles similares ao redor do mundo, sem por isso descartar o lado local. Acho que a grande maioria dos urbanistas no Brasil como no resto do mundo sabe perfeitamente fazer essa distinção. Pelo menos, nesse projeto, não achei nada que me pareça inaplicável em São Paulo...
  • Aparentemente, a coisa principal que foi pedida aos autores do projeto foi: "Precisamos que vocês aumentem muito o número de moradores ali". Nessa questão também o projeto responde bem: Todos os números dobram, mas o "mix", a proporção entre moradores de renda baixa, moradores de renda alta, trabalhadores, comércio, continua a mesma. A área disponível para moradia (a área total de apartamentos) dobra também. Resumindo, o projeto faz o que foi pedido mas cuida em manter a diversidade atual da população do centro. Achei isso uma atitude muito correta.
  • Sobre a necessidade de aumentar a população dessa área, também acho válido. O centro de São Paulo carece de moradores. Como muitas áreas centrais de cidades grandes, ele foi totalmente "tomado" por comércios e escritórios, e hoje tem pouca gente demais morando la, e, a noite, as ruas esvaziam muito. Como ensina a Jane Jacobs, provavelmente a maior especialista que já teve sobre esse fenômeno, é fundamental ter moradores para ter um bairro equilibrado e seguro. Fazer isso na Luz realmente poderia ter um impacto enorme sobre toda a área central, e fazer com que o centro volte a ser habitado, e vire um pedaço de cidade equilibrado, seguro e dinâmico.
  • Sobre como o projeto responde a esse problema: A área atual tem 1 200 000 m² de área construída. Desse total, 900 000 m² (75%) são mantidos, e 300 000 m² (25%) são demolidos. Até ali, 25% pode ainda ser considerado alto. Nesses 300 000 m² demolidos, serão erguidos novos 1 000 000 m². No total, depois da operação, teremos em torno de 2 000 000 m². Considerando que vamos dobrar a área, ter que demolir só 25% da área inicial, até não é nada mal.
  • Olhando por um outro lado agora: esses 1 200 000 m² representem 900 prédios. Os 300 000 demolidos representem 550 prédios. Isso é, quase os dois terços dos prédios da áreas serão demolidos. Obviamente, no projeto, se prevê demolir um máximo de prédios "pouco importantes" (galpões, imóveis pequenos, etc) e manter um máximo de prédios "importantes" (onde tem muita gente morando, por exemplo). Isso explica esse número em parte: Representa muitos prédios demolidos, mas pouca área construída. Mas mesmo assim, é assustador pensar que dois terços dos edifícios serão demolidos. É enorme. Por mais que não represente tanta área (25%), é uma cirurgia muito destruidora na paisagem urbana. É necessário isso tudo para conseguir revitalizar um bairro?
  • Outro ponto preocupante, a palavra "desapropriação" (e suas variações) é citada apenas 5 vezes nas 200 páginas do projeto, o que me parece indicar que tentaram esconder o fato.
  • O problema da gentrificação é bem complexo e difícil de evitar. O mesmo fenômeno acontece aqui do lado (Frei Caneca / Augusta), sem nenhum plano do Kassab... Assim que se mexe alguma coisa na cidade, se refaz uma pavimentação, se coloca lixeiras, etc, a especulação imobiliária reage imediatamente. Os preços aumentam, e fica cada vez mais difícil para uma parte da população pagar o aluguel. Acho quase impossível fazer algum plano urbanístico desse porte sem que isso aconteça. O que se pede a um plano urbanístico é de tomar medidas para diminuir os efeitos disso, e até acho que este projeto faz isso mais ou menos corretamente, prevê áreas que deverão manter aluguéis baixos, prevê muitos apartamentos de tamanho variodo, etc.
  • As várias críticas ao projeto encontradas na net apontam atualmente o Kassab como culpado principal. Ao meu ver isso é um engano terrível sobre quem é o inimigo aqui. O principal beneficiário dessa "reconstrução" não será ele nem a prefeitura (apesar dos substanciais lucros gerados pelas operações de desapropriação) mas as construtoras que receberão quarterões inteiros em "doação". Se trata na verdade de uma grande festa imobiliária. Terá grande distribuição de terra para todas elas. Depois da desapropriação, essas construtoras serão legalmente proprietárias das áreas desapropriadas, como consta na lei abaixo. Ali é para mim o ponto mais grave, um instrumento muito excepcional e perigoso como a desapropriação, que quando acontece deve acontecer somente por razão superior de interesse público, e o resultado da desapropriação se tornar propriedade pública (parque, centro cultural, escola, etc), aqui serve para "doar" prédios para empresas.
  • Um lei municipal (texto integral aqui foi promulgada para permitir a execução do plano todo. Essa lei não diz que as construtoras terão poder de expropriar (razão provável pela qual não deu certo a recente tentativa de impedir a lei, baseada nessa tese), mas mesmo assim contem trechos bem assustadores como a transferência de propriedade automática do expropriado para a construtora.
  • Por info, esse plano começou em 2004 (prefeitura de Marta Suplicy) e foi continuado por todos os prefeitos que seguiram, não houve ninguém para se opor ao projeto...

Aqui terminam mais ou menos as conclusões que tiro do projeto em se. Para resumir, acho que considerando tudo, é um bom projeto, equilibrado, que tenta propor, apesar do grande aumento da população de moradores, uma solução rica, complexa, e é cheio de ideias interessantes, e que respeita bastante bem a diversidade de população e usos atuais.

O grande problema, fora a demolição (com a consequente desapropriação) maciça que ele provoca, é a "arquitetura" legal atrás dele que permite a transferência automática de propriedade de dois terços dos imóveis para as construtoras que tomarão conta do lugar. O tamanho da demolição, 25% da área construída, não seria em se exagerada se fosse feita pelos próprios proprietários, e não imposta por cima. Imagino que é mais ou menos o que aconteceria "naturalmente", se o bairro ganhava meios e incentivos para fazê-lo ele mesmo. Eles também iam começar por vender os galpões velhos, depois os prédios pequenos, etc.. e chegaria provavelmente a um número similar. Leia também este artigo que tem uma opinião um pouco diferente da minha sobre essas operações urbanas...

Francamente não sei se atacas globais ao projeto terão muito efeito... Espero que se mobilizem gente suficiente para travar o processo "imobiliário" canibal. Acredito que o projeto ficaria válido mesmo diminuindo drasticamente a invasão das construtoras, talvez consigamos convencer alguém la "em cima"? Acho uma pena de jogar fora o bebê junto com a água do banho...

Disclaimer: Esse texto todo é apenas a minha humilde opinião, viu? Não é importante, ninguém vai seguir ela, não vale a pena começar uma guerra de ideias, ok? Isso dito se você tiver críticas interessantes ou ideias para acrescentar, por favor não deixe de coloca-las abaixo!


in categories  works  projects  architecture  3d  permalink:  159   posted on 06.11.2011 21:13
From Yorik

Costa do Ipê Parque Shopping




This is the first part of our project for an open-air shopping mall in the city of Marilia, in the interior of São Paulo state, Brazil. The localization of the project is outside of the central commercial area of the city, in a fast-growing residencial area. The clients, being designers themselves, approached us with an already very developed idea of what they needed and wanted, and cleaver views on the project development and viabilization.



Explaining the project is actually very simple, it has shops on the ground floor, with an "entrance" open court designed to host bars and restaurants that can stay open late, and an upper floor with has a big deck with restaurants, and offices which are not accessible to the public, so you must pass through a recepcion to access them. A centtral "circulation hub" connects everything with a ramp and a possible elevator.



We almost immediately settled on a dynamic, open solution, that tried to be the contrary of a classical shopping mall: instead of surrounding a circulation area with a box made of shops, we tried to make people surround the shops, allowing them to "occupy" the place. As a result, a very wide variety of "places" emerged from the project, each one with a different quality. You have small, intimate spaces, bigger open gardens, little corners between 2 courts, coffee-breaks in the middle of your shopping parcours, roof terraces, decks, bridges, etc. All made to be public or semi-public, all easy to be "owned" by the public.
Another quality that rose from the exploded configuration is the very dynamic character of the project and its many anchors to the surroundings. It has many entrances, many connections, and, although the spatial organization might seem cahotic, very fluid circulation paths.



The buildings themselves are very simple by intent. We are trying to keep the general budget as low and under control as possible, to be able to spend money on specific items, such as the metallic parts or the vegetation, and because we and the clients all have a same desire to prove that we can do quality spaces with a low budget. We also tried to make the project leave the smallest possible footprint on its environment.

The project also tries to be very flexible. The proportion of offices and shops is not fixed and will depend on the investors, so any section of offices can be converted into shops or vice-versa without any further project modification, and the shops and office can have about any size, all the closing elements being modular.

Architects: uncreated.net Client: Zeus ltda















See also:

in categories  linux  freecad  blender  architecture  opensource  permalink:  97   posted on 22.09.2011 19:52
From Yorik

Linux for architects


This is a little introduction to Linux for you architects who have never tried it, but would like to know what's all the fuss about it and if it is really usable for working with architecture. If you know Linux already, I'm sure you'll find a lot of missing info in this text and find it maybe a bit too enthusiastic, but we are whowe are, aren't we...

This article is a sequel of another short article I wrote back in 2009 to present some tools available to architects on the Linux platform.

Just a small note, What it is exactly?

Actually it's wrong to call Linux Linux. Linux systems are not all-in-one, monolithic things like Windows, but rather a complex assemblage of software pieces, Linux being only the base block.

Linux is based on Unix, its predecessor, and follows a basic Unix philosophy: Rather than having one huge all-in-one application that does 1001 tricks, have 1001 small applications that do each one one simple task, but do it well.

Most of the other pieces come from a project called GNU, that's why those systems are usually called GNU/Linux and not just Linux. But let's make it simple and continue to call it Linux.

Of course make those thousands of small applications all work seamlessly is not a small work, but fortunately it has been done a lot of times already. This is where comes what we call a Linux distribution, which is a complete operating system, based on GNU/Linux, made of hundreds of little pieces, all working in a big symphony. Ubuntu is one of the most famous Linux distributions.

First things first, Why Linux Is For You

  • Linux is free. This means not only that you don't pay anything, but also that you are free to do what you want with it: download it, distribute it, share it on bitTorrent, (you caneven sell it), without having to do anything or report to anyone. Like GNU people use to say, it's free like freedom, not free like free beer
  • Much more important than being free, it will stay free forever. Like most free software, its code carries a license that prevents it from being bought by a firm and stop being free.
  • Your distribution doesn't only provide you with the Linuxoperating system, but with almost any piece of software that runs on Linux. As a consequence, all your applications can be installed easily from your distribution's servers, and your whole computer, not only the operating system but ALL yourinstalled applications, are updated automatically.
  • Linux inherits another very important thing from Unix: The rock-solid built-in protection of networking, files, processes and users. As a consequence, Linux is almost invulnerable to viruses (there is no Linux virus known today) and easily protected against network intrusions.
  • Linux and most free applications that runs on it are programmed and maintained by people who have no commercial reasons to do it. They do what they think is best, not what they think will sell better. Your software will never force you to buy a new computer (Linux and most free software run fine on very old hardware) or a new plugin, and software evolves extremely fast (new features land on your system almost every single day).
  • People who make free software are extremely social. You find them easily, talk to them, discuss, share ideas, and easily get involved in directions your favorite application is taking. All happens through forums, email discussions, chat rooms or facebook pages. If you miss some feature and you can convince people of the importance of your claim, chances are high that someone will implement it.
  • Linux can safely be installed side-to-side with another operating system such as Windows. A menu will then appear, at boot time, to allow you to choose which system to boot to.

The Bad

Of course nothing comes without disvantages. Here are a few issues you might expect:
  • Bleeding-edge new hardware might not be totally supported yet. Nobody has commercial urge to make Linux work for your particular hardware, so you usually have to wait until some Linux programmer will get one for him, be annoyed be the fact it isn't supported, and remedy the situation. It's always a good idea to test before installing or investigate before buying.
  • Windows software doesn't run on Linux systems. You will need to get used to other applications. But most of the usual ones have one or many excellent or even much better alternatives in Linux, and nowadays more and more applications such as Google Chrome, Firefox or Open Office can run on both Windows and Linux. Some more specialized commercial-grade applications such as engineering applications still don't have a Linux alternative, though. You will sometimes need to do some homework and find workarounds to palliate to that situation.
  • There is no firm behind Linux. Nobody to call, nobody to complain to. Although some firms may offer you tech support, you are on your own in most cases. But fortunately most answers are very easy to find on the internet, a simple search like "How to resize a picture in Ubuntu" will usually give you an easy and immediate answer.

So what does it look like?

If you managed to read until now, you must be a bit curious to see what it looks like, right? I gathered here a couple of screenshots from the most common distributions:

Below is the latest version of Ubuntu, probably the most famous of all Linux distributions, and one of the most friendly to new users. In this version, Ubuntu introduced a new way to navigate through your files and applications, called Unity, which is the vertical bar containing icons on the left:



Another very good distribution is LinuxMint. Linux Mint is based on Ubuntu, so it inherits all the qualities of its father. But its developers put a special effort into style and design, so Linux Mint is often the favorite distribution used by artists:




This is another of the most famous ones among new users, called Fedora. Fedora is derived from a famous commercial Linux system called Red Hat, and it inherits from it a great deal of novelty and power. Fedora is usually liked because it brings bleeding-edge features faster than the others:



But most Linux systems are deeply customizable, and you can usually make your desktop look like your wildest dreams. Here is, for example, a screenshot of my own desktop:



How to get it

Most Linux distributions have a great feature: The installation CD is also a Live CD, that allows you to run your Linux system entirely from the CD, without installing anything. This is a great way to test, to see if it runs well, and if you like it at all, without risking to do any harm to your current system. The proceeding is very simple:
  • Download an .iso CD image from one of the distribution sites indicated above. Sometimes they have several flavours, such as 32bits or 64bits. Choose one that suits your computer. Since a full CD image is a big file (700Mb), Most of them allow you to download it via bitTorrent if you prefer. Some even provide DVD versions, which include more pre-installed applications.
  • Burn that image on a blank CD. Be careful, burning an image is not the same thing as copying a file on a CD. Simply copying the .iso file on the CD won't work, you must either right-click on the .iso file and select a "burn this image to disc" option, or open your disk burning software and find the "burn disc image" option. When your disk is burned, it will contain several files, not the .iso file.
  • Now place your fresh CD in your CD drive, and reboot your computer. On some systems, you must allow your computer to boot the CD before booting the Hard drive, this is usually done by pressing a key (F2, F12) during the first seconds after powering up and selecting your CD drive in a list.
  • Your new operating system will now boot. Remember that nothing is copied to your computer, so you can play safely with everything, there is no risk to harm anything. Just remove the CD and reboot, and you'll be back to your original operating system. But remember too that nothing you do while you are running from the CD will be saved, so you will loose any work you do during that time.
  • Most Linux distributions, when running from the CD, will have an "Install to Hard Drive", icon, which you can use when you are ready to install. You will then be taken to a step-by-step install procedure.
Now where are the file explorer, the internet explorer, the windows messenger, the acrobat reader, photoshop, skype, notepad, word, excel? Well, almost none of those are there, but all have at least one equivalent. Explore the menus and you will find everything in no time. And if something is missing, it can easily be installed by the system itself.

This is, for example, the Ubuntu software center, from where you install just about anything:

Okay, after all this bla-bla, what about doing architecture work?

The problem you'll encounter with Linux is that none of your usual architecture software will work. No Autocad, no Revit, no Archicad, no Vectorworks, no 3DS Max, no V-Ray. Those are all windows-only (some run on Mac too), and it's very unlikely that their developers will want to spend time in doing a Linux version in the near future.

So, how bad exactly is the situation?

Actually it is not bad at all, but you will need to learn to use new software, there is no way to avoid that part. Apart from that, it is actually possible to work without any problem.
2D CAD
In the 2D CAD field, we have a couple of options now. Some are totally free, like QCad,Cademia or the new and promising LibreCAD. Those, since they are maintained and developed by a community, might lack some commercial features like DWG format compatibility. This is LibreCAD:



We also have several commercial applications, which are not free, but run natively on Linux, and have all the features that you would expect from a commercial application, such as DWG compatibility and technical support, like Ares Commander and BricsCAD. Here is BricsCAD:



And, since a couple of months, we now have a free AND commercial application called DraftSight. DraftSight, although owned by a company, is distributed for free, and supports DWG format natively:

3D CAD & BIM
Here unfortunately things are less easy. There is at the moment no ready solution, but there are several efforts going in that direction, so the future is promising. One of these efforts is an application called FreeCAD to which I have the honor to contribute with coding in my spare time. FreeCAD is a full modern parametric modeler, and although very young, it already has a lot of interesting functionality for doing architecture, such as a 2D drawing module, usual 3D tools such as extrusion and booleans, and a 3D-to-2D module. A real BIM module is also in development.



I write a lot about FreeCAD on this blog...
3D MODELING & RENDERING
In the area of 3D rendering, things are not only better but state-of-the-art, thanks to an amazing piece of software called Blender. Blender runs on windows too, so chances are high that you heard about it already. Blender is for me the best general-use 3D application available today. Better than 3DS Max, better than Maya. It is faster, smaller, and made by 3D users instead of made by Autodesk. Blender can do everything that those 2 applications can do, and has several external renderers available.

The only drawback of blender is that it can be hard to learn if you are much used to another 3D application. But I warned you about that already...



In fact, I use Blender so much that it is now not only what I use to do rendering, but also to compose architecture:



I also write a lot about Blender, there are also many tutorials on the homepage of this site.

But there is something I didn't tell you yet. Remember I told Windows applications don't run on Linux, right? Well it's not totally true. There is a little gem of a software, called Wine, which allows to run Windows applications on a Linux system. It won't work with all applications, and many will run with problems. But one of the applications that runs almost perfectly is Sketchup! Installing Windows applications with Wine is nowadays almost as easy as installing them on Windows, and they integrate seamlessly on your desktop (But of course it is never as comfortable and fast as running a native Linux application). The Wine website has a list of windows software that runs with it, with ratings, comments and notes.
2D PAINTING & PHOTO-COMPOSITION
What would be of us architects without photoshop, right? The most famous Linux photoshop-like application is called Gimp, and, although many purists will argue that it lacks some or another indispensable photoshop option, is an excellent and very mature application, totally able to perform all the tasks architects usually require from photoshop, and, thanks to the typical friendliness to extension and customization found in most Linux applications, you can extend it into a very powerful digital painting platform.



To give you an idea, this is the kind of drawing that you can achieve with gimp only:



But a lot of digital artists use Linux nowadays, so there are many more interesting tools available, like MyPaint or Krita. Another must-have Linux application is inkscape, which is a vectorial drawing application, similar to Corel Draw or Illustrator. It is commonly used for drawing diagrams, icons and vector artwork, but is perfect for mounting more complex presentation sheets.



Also worth noting, many of those applications also run on windows, so it's a good place to try.

Are there architects out there who use Linux?

Because of all the little problems but mostly because it is not very well known, very few architects use Linux at this time. But things are changing fast... Here is a list of interesting people who share tips, techniques and resources about the subject: Enjoy!

in categories  architecture  projects  permalink:  130   posted on 27.07.2011 18:48
From Yorik

Gowanus canal competition


This is our entry for the Gowanus canal competition.



Give passage

Give access to your roof or your grounds. The central idea is to allow pedestrian circulation on all the intervention area, together with a significant augmentation of green areas. Pedestrians will be able to transit through these parcels, as if it was a big park with different levels.

The parcels in the intervention area continue as private properties of their respective owners, the difference is that they allow pedestrian transit. The urban blocks will only be defined by their bording streets, while pedestrians will be able to cross them in diverse ways. Acces can be permitted in several forms: through gardens or parking lots, through ground floors or through flat roofs.

The owner of an area can choose which alternative to use, providing the whole vertical projection of the parcel as accessable pedestrian way. Areas above roofs will be accessable by stairs, elevators and bridges and will serve as gardens and squares for the surrounding communities. Empty areas on parcels should offer at least 60% green area, the rest covered with interlocked pavement, always accessable to pedestrians.

If you are an owner, you can choose for example to use the ground floor of your building as a commercial area with shops, making it accessable 24h/day, or make a garden.

You can also transform the roof of your buildingin a square, a reading or leisure space. You can bind your roofgarden to another one with a footbridge over the street, so people can cross it without confronting the cars. There are a lot of possible combinations.

The whole objective of this proposal is to offer a bigger public green area without transforming the canal surroundings in a big empty park. Everything continues to function like before, but with more green, less walls, and more walkpath for people.

With the increase of green and permeable area, this project acts as a complement to the sponge park project, and since green roofs help a lot in retaining rainwater, reduces greatly the overload of the sewer system during heavy rains.

Giving free access to community residents through parcels, this projects helps to turn the area more secure and alive, creating a sense of community of an unique quality.





in categories  projects  architecture  3d  works  permalink:  105   posted on 29.06.2011 18:14
From Yorik

51




This is a project we recently made with Sander and Angelica for the factory of cachaça 51, the largest and probably the most famous cachaça manufacturer worldwide. They are currently spread over several buildings in town and wanted a new building that would gather all administrative functions in one place, close to the main factory facilicy.

The main idea is to create a dialog with the existing reservoirs on the factory site. Those reservoirs contain the different ingredients used to make cachaça and other byproducts. They are a very important mark in the landscape, and have even become a touristic attraction in the city.

We also proposed a building that is symbolically strongly bound to the 51 brand. The number 51 appears everywhere in the project. The building is made of 6 blocks of 3 floors, connected by bridges inside a central atrium. The construction system is simple, the "cubes" can be made with a wide range of techniques, from steelframe to classical concrete structure, and the atrium has very small spans.

The central atrium connects everything in the building, and is the main space that visitors discover when they enter the facility. It has an interior garden, a "street bar", a museum, and all the bridges used to transit from a block to another. The functions inside the building are spread from the most public, right next to the entrance, to the most private, up the third floor.

On the terrain, behind the building, are also a new parking lot and a garden, and a pedestrian path that connects the administrative building to the factory.

























The .blend file is available here.

in categories  architecture  projects  3d  permalink:  188   posted on 18.11.2010 21:49
From Yorik

Interlagos project - our proposal

We recently made an animation for a project in Interlagos. The project was made together with other architects, and it turned out quite different than our first idea, but neverthless some of the concepts went through until the final form. Here goes our own proposal, with the first sketches and a model.

The main idea was to build something light but high. Light because it has to be on top of an existing structure and the anchor points must be spread where it can, sometimes on the existing elements sometimes not, and also because all the project needs to achieve is shading and rain protection, high because it must serve as a beacon, clearly indicating the circuit's entrance point to who comes by train, bus, car, foot or even helicopter, and also because we want to be able to see under it, from the seats and paddocks spread along the circuit.

The new structure itself is obviously still very sketchy in these images, but the main idea is to use the three staircases as big columns, making large arms on top of them, that support the main part of the weight. The rest spreads over thin columns, that fall where they can on the existing building.















And here goes a 3D model view. The file is a bit incomplete due to the changes of directions the project took later but it can still give you an idea:


Use left and right keyboard arrows to rotate. You need to install the burster plugin to view this

in categories  photo  architecture  permalink:  145   posted on 13.09.2010 3:09
From Yorik

Paranapiacaba


Paranapiacaba is a small strange and beautiful old railway city near São Paulo, built to home english railway workers at the end of 19th century on a line linking the coffee-producing areas to the port of Santos. Today the line is still partially used but the wide complex Paranapiacaba was built around is disaffected, leaving the city cut in 2 by this surreal "rail valley"...














in categories  idsampa  architecture  opensource  permalink:  134   posted on 01.09.2010 17:46
From Yorik

Auto-analise de consumo elétrico

Outro dia tentei "dissecar" o nosso consumo elétrico aqui em casa, e ver o que isso representa comparado à média nacional e de outros países, e qual quantidade de painéis solares seria necessária para suprir esse consumo. As fontes de consumo listadas abaixo são todas tiradas da internet, tentei achar os dados mais precisos possíveis, mas deve ter obviamente vários dados errados ou desatualizados. Mesmo assim, tirei várias conclusões interessantes:

1) Até somos bastante eficientes, consumimos metade da média de São Paulo, um quarto da média da França, ou um décimo da média dos USA! Somando todos os aparelhos da casa, chego a 115 kwh/mês, a nossa conta da mais ou menos 110/mês, portanto a estimação deve ser mais ou menos correta.

2) Os nossos computadores realmente não consomem muita energia. O maior culpado, obviamente, é o chuveiro elétrico. Já li que botar o computador em modo "sleep" ou desliga-lo quase não faz diferencia, acho que é verdade. Note que desktops consomem muito mais que notebooks.

3) Precisariamos, no Brasil, apenas 10m² de painéis solares para produzir o que consumimos. O custo dessa instalação, infelizmente, gira em torno de R$ 50 000

4) Uma instalação solar não é interessante sozinha (produz pontualmente pouca energia demais, e não tem como armazenar eficientemente). O interessante é vender tudo que produz para a rede, e comprar o que usa. Na maioria dos países europeus (que é o modelo que se planeja seguir no Brasil), a lei obriga as companhias de energias a comprar o kwh de você mais caro do que vende. Nos USA é o inverso... Não consegui achar se já existe uma tarifa de compra no Brasil.

5) Nos países que mais incentivam o uso de energia solar (Alemanha), a proporção de energia disponível na rede elétrica que é produzida por casas particulares está começando a ficar consequente. O modelo está se comprovando. Tem vários projetos similares na mesa no Brasil, mas como no momento a produção de energia é mais que suficiente para atender o país, suponho que ninguém vê muita urgência nisso...

Aqui vai minha análise detalhada:
aparelho                 w           Kwh       horas/dia       Kwh

geladeira      1                                               27.3
chuveiro       1        5000                      0.5           75
lampadas       4         15                        4           7.2
notebook       2                     2.4                       4.8
Lava-roupas    1        250                       0.15         1.25

                                                              115.55

consumo                           Kwh / mês                 Kwh / ano
comparado

nossa casa                           110                       1320
média SP                             200                       2400
média Brasil                         150                       1800
média França                                                   4000
média UK                                                       3300
média USA                                                     14000

Insolação                         Kwh / ano                 kwh/ano/m²
média
Brasil                               1900                      190
São Paulo                            1700                      170
França                               1300                      130
Alemanha                             1100                      110

painéis              dimensões    Kwh / mês     preço R$   necessários
solares

Genérico              100x100        15.8                       7
Kyocera                140x60        25.2         3000          4
KC120

preço do kwh                       comprar                    vender
em R$
Brasil                               0.31
França                               0.25                      1.29
Portugal                             0.25                      1.45
USA                                  0.15                      0.03

in categories  architecture  idsampa  permalink:  123   posted on 11.08.2010 22:30
From Yorik

#idsampa 5 : Reocupar construções paradas



Este prédio fica na rua Augusta, do lado do studio SP (e em frente a um restaurante bem legalzinho chamado Guta). É um dos vários prédios em construção cuja obra foi parada por não se sabe qual razão jurídico-administrativo-financeira que se encontram semi-abandonados no meio de São Paulo (já vi vários outros para os quais vou tentar fazer outros desenhos mais tarde).

O problema é obviamente que mais tempo a obra fica naquele estado, mais difícil fica de terminar, mesmo se resolvem os problemas citados acima. A estrutura em si não sofre de ser deixada exposta, não perde praticamente nada de estabilidade, mas o grande problema é o acabamento. Num prédio que ficou tomando chuva assim, as alvenarias ficam irremediavelmente úmidas e incrustadas de fungos, poluição, sujeira que tornam o acabamento quase impossível. Você coloca gesso nas paredes, e daqui um ano elas ficam cheias de infiltração e mofo.

Uma solução a esse problema seria assumir a estrutura existente como um mero suporte externo, no qual se encaixam "gavetas", que são os apartamentos. Nenhuma parede interna toca nas paredes externas. Na imagem acima, imaginei gavetas feitas com suportes metálicos e revestidas de madeira. Como trabalhamos com coisas leves, não tem real necessidade do que as coisas estejam exatamente uma acima da outra, e podemos fazer todos os apartamentos diferentes.

Outra vantagem é que deixando a estrutura exposta, ela pode servir para um monte de coisas interessantes, como jardins, passarelas suspensas, etc. A cobertura também viraria um grande jardim comum.


in categories  architecture  projects  permalink:  88   posted on 13.06.2010 19:18
From Yorik
Open Mall shopping project - the files

This is a shopping mall project we made recently. All the composition was made by hand sketching and directly in 3D. We received from the client a basic layout with the gross areas of shops, offices and parking, and mounted the project on top of it. Since it is a first idea that the client wanted in order to "win" the project, we then focued on producing images that would convey the general "feel" of the project, instead of solving each and every detail, but that's hopefully for a next phase.











The final images are in the next post, and for who is even more interested, the blend file is available here...

in categories  architecture  3d  works  permalink:  87   posted on 13.06.2010 19:06
From Yorik
Open Mall shopping project

Here are a couple of renderings of a project we recently made. This time, we not only made the 3D but the whole architecture project!





















In a next post I'll show the project composition phase and post the 3D file...

in categories  architecture  permalink:  67   posted on 09.05.2010 19:43
From Yorik
Casas sustentáveis?

Aqui vai o texto de uma entrevista que fiz um tempo atrás, que acabou não sendo publicada. Em vez de jogar fora, achei melhor coloca-lo aqui... Se discordar de algo ou tiver mais explicações, por favor comente!

- Existe um interesse maior do consumidor em utilizar produtos sustentáveis mesmo eles elevando o valor final obra?

Aqui realmente não tenho muita ideia de até que ponto isso vai... Uma coisa está certa, existe um interesse muito grande que não existia antes. É só você entrar em qualquer loja que venda materiais de construção ou abrir qualquer revista sobre construção e decoração, você vai ver que o interesse está bem lá. Tudo virou "eco".
Também tem que ficar consciente que ser sustentável é muito mais uma questão de atitude, quero dizer, escolher tal técnica, material, comportamento sobre tal outro, do que comprar materiais etiquetados como sustentáveis. Para dar um exemplo mais claro, você é muito mais sustentável quando recicla seu lixo do que quando sua casa é feita de tijolo "eco". Não custa necessariamente mais caro de ser sustentável.
Dai não sei como se responde a essa questão. O interesse está ai, com certeza esse interesse incita as pessoas a olhar materiais ditos sustentáveis, mas até onde pagarão é uma questão de estudo de mercado...

- Mesmo levando em conta que o custo de uma construção sustentável é, pelo menos, 30% maior do que uma construção normal o governo pretende construir moradias populares que atendam a padrões de sustentabilidade. O valor cobrado pelas casas será apenas 10% maior do que o cobrado atualmente pelas casas da CDHU. É possível construir moradias sustentáveis populares a baixo custo? Como tornar essa obra mais barata?

É muito variável. Basicamente, sustentabilidade, em arquitetura, quer dizer algo assim: tornar-se, o máximo possível, independente das redes de abastecimento e evacuação, como: água, energia elétrica, esgotos e coleta de lixo. Ser sustentável é tentar consumir menos água, menos eletricidade, e gerar menos água usada no esgoto e menos lixo. Uma parte enorme disso todo pode ser feita simplesmente mudando suas atitudes, sem gastar um real.
Claro que a indústria criou rapidamente toda uma gama de produtos destinados a ajudar você a cumprir essa tarefa, tais como aquecedores solares (que fazem você usar menos energia), materiais mais isolantes (que fazem você usar menos ar condicionado) ou circuitos de reuso de água (que fazem você usar menos água).
Você também pode (e deve) considerar as redes das quais devemos menos depender não só como nossas redes públicas urbanas, mas como o nosso planeta todo. Dai, também, vira importante não consumir recursos ou gerar poluição. Ali entram materiais ditos sustentáveis, como madeiras de reflorestamento, que vem de florestas plantadas e não nativas, ou materiais cujo processo de fabricação gerou menos poluição ou consumiu menos energia.
Mas como você agora já deve entender, de longe o maior ganho de sustentabilidade que você pode conseguir está nessas atitudes simples, e não tanto na compra de materiais eco. Com certeza você pode gastar muito mais que 30% com todos os últimos acessórios, e também com um gasto de 10% amais você já pode fazer uma mudança enorme.

- Que produtos você recomenda para pessoas que queiram deixar sua casa mais sustentável? (algo pratico e simples)

Muito mais importante que comprar produtos é adotar atitudes sustentáveis: gastar menos água, menos energia elétrica, e gerar menos lixo e água no esgoto. Só tentando fazer isso você vai conseguir muito mais resultado que comprando produtos e materiais feitos, afinal, para ajudar você a fazer isso. Tome banhos mais curtos, use menos a máquina de lavar roupas, separe e lave o lixo para coleta específica (ou, se não tiver, para que os catadores possam fazer um trabalho melhor), faça compostagem com lixo orgânico se você tiver um quintal, apague as luzes nos cômodos onde não tem ninguém, etc. Pense que a redução que você vai ver nas sua conta de luz tem um impacto igual no planeta, provavelmente muito maior que se você usa tal ou tal material de construção.
Algo muito importante e muito simples de se fazer, especialmente importante no Brasil, é comprar somente madeira de reflorestamento. Hoje em dia não custa mais caro por isso (começa até a ficar difícil encontrar madeira NÃO sustentável), simplesmente tem que verificar que tudo que você compra de madeira, como madeira de construção ou móveis, seja feito com madeira de reflorestamento. Produtos industriais geralmente tem etiquetas, e marceneiros tem documentos de origem da madeira.

- Nas obras enterradas para uma construção sustentável que medidas “sustentáveis” são utilizadas?

Ai o ponto principal é o esgoto. Em regiões rurais, onde não tem rede de esgotos, o método tradicional é fazer um grande poço. As suas águas usadas vão cair dentro do poço, e, lentamente, se infiltrar no solo. Em regiões urbanas, você simplesmente conecta as suas tubulações de evacuação à rede de esgotos, e joga tudo ali. O resultado é o mesmo, você joga seus dejetos na natureza. Uma técnica relativamente simples de executar é instalar uma fossa séptica entre os tubos de saída da sua casa e a natureza. É, para resumir, um grande caixão de concreto, fechado, enterrado. Dentro da fossa, bactérias digerem as suas impurezas e a água que sai da fossa limpou tanto que dá para usar para coisas como irrigar plantas. Não custa muito caro no orçamento de uma casa e é fácil de instalar.

- Para erguer as paredes são utilizados que tipos de materiais?

Dentro de uma parede, os materiais geralmente utilizados são, em comparação do resto, pouco prejudiciais à natureza. Tijolo é, afinal, um produto natural. No Brasil, também não temos o problema que tem nos paises frios, onde as suas paredes tem que conservar a energia que você gastou para aquecer o ambiente. Existe controversa sobre o cimento, cujo processo de fabricação utilize e gera materiais poluentes, mas não temos hoje muitas alternativas a não ser construir em madeira ou em adobe (barro cru).

A pintura é um ponto onde você pode agir mais facilmente, pinturas são tradicionalmente fabricadas com vários componentes poluentes. Mas existem hoje vários tipos de pinturas mais respeitosas do meio ambiente.

- Quais os principais itens sustentáveis que ajudam na economia de energia elétrica?

Eu diria que o item principal é você mesmo. Quem consome energia é você, muito antes da sua casa. Usando menos seus aparelhos eletrodomésticos, você certamente conseguirá uma diminuição bem mais drástica de consumo do que usando aparelhos que ajudam você com isso.

Mas para dar uma resposta melhor, se você for olhar o consumo em Watts de cada um dos seus aparelhos eletrodomésticos, você vai ver que um dos que mais consomem é o chuveiro. Dai um dos aparelhos mais úteis são aquecedores solares de água. Tem diversos modelos e sistemas, e hoje em dia você encontre em todas as grandes lojas de equipamentos de casa. São sistemas feitos de um panel solar, onde a água circula, o sol esquenta ela, e ela fica armazenada em um tanque isolado. Quando você liga o chuveiro, a água já vem mais ou menos quente (dependendo se teve muito sol), e o chuveiro gasta muito menos para esquentar (você pode deixar ele na posição "verão" no inverno, e desligar ele completamente no verão).

- Na área externa/lazer da casa o que se pode fazer para deixar sustentável?

Ai não sei!

- Como funciona o processo de armazenamento da água da chuva? Como essa água pode ser usada no dia a dia?

É bem fácil armazenar. Basta montar uma cisterna (pode ser construída ou comprada pronta), instalar coletores de água nos beirais do seu telhado, se já não tiver, e enviar com tubos a água dos coletores na cisterna. Os cuidados para ter são simples: evitar que muitas impurezas que caem no telhado (folhas principalmente) caiam na cisterna, colocando grelhas nas saídas dos coletores, evitar que luz solar entra na cisterna (criaria algas), e evitar que insectos entram, colocando tela anti-mosquitos em todas as aberturas possíveis. Se você for colocar essa cisterna o mais alto possível (mas mais baixo que o telhado, claro, para que a água possa cair dentro), será fácil de usar essa água para várias coisas como regar plantas, lavar carros ou mesmo, o que é um pouco mais complexo mas absolutamente possível, descarga de água de vasos sanitários. Resumindo, para tudo que não for beber, comer ou higiene pessoal.

in categories  projects  architecture  permalink:  66   posted on 09.05.2010 19:16
From Yorik
Rodoshopping

An older shopping project we sketched in 2008 that I wanted to repost... It never went further than this very preliminary stage...













in categories  architecture  projects  permalink:  36   posted on 19.03.2010 22:21
From Yorik
Frei Caneca competition project



This is our proposal for the Frei Caneca street reurbanization competition in São Paulo. The project was made with Maíra, Sander and Angelica. Given the extreme diversity of people, uses and social contexts of the Frei Caneca, we choosed not to make a project, which would dictate its rules over very different people and situations, and would make the street "beg" for the project execution to the authorities.
Instead, we designed a bottom-up system where everyone can propose, rate and execute small "micro-projects". No masterplan, no fundraising, no approval, no architect. If everybody does his part, wonderful. If only one does, the street has already gained improvement.

You don't make a street work better because you change the pavement and the trashbins... It has almost no importance at all. A street is made of people who live there and people who use the street, and what makes a street a nice street is the intricate relationship between all of them. for who is interested in the subject, read the fantastic book of Jane Jacobs, "The Death and Life of Great American Cities". She said (in 1961) many, many things that apply perfectly to São Paulo (and many other cities around the world)...








in categories  opensource  architecture  freecad  blender  linux  permalink:  40   posted on 28.11.2009 4:25
From Yorik
Actually I really should write a kind of FAQ or article about doing architecture on a Linux platform... Many people are indeed interested by the subject. So, here we go:

My architecture workflow on linux

Actually there is no obvious or productive workflow possible at the moment, due to the lack of good (productive) CAD software on linux. You can do architecture on linux, but you won't have the same level of productivity as if you just draw with your favorite CAD program under windows (I indeed have a dual boot system .


just for the fun, my linux desktop!

That said, if you are willing to move away from the "all-in-one" solutions that big CAD vendors sell, you already can do a very big part of the work with linux software. I myself use blender for about 80% of the conception work, the rest being simple hand sketching. You already have several good scripts to generate plans and sections from your models in blender, and export them to convenient CAD formats like DXF. Search the blender wiki scripts section.

In blender you can do all kinds of useful things like importing your hand-drawn sketches, pieces of 2D CAD plans, model on top of it, etc, for example:


blend file here

The biggest problem is then, when you want to do 2D CAD. There are indeed several solutions, like qcad, autocad under wine, bricascad/intellicad, or long-time linux CAD challengers, like cycas, graphite one or varicad. There are also a number of interesting newcomers, like realCADD or medusa. But none of those solutions are really productive and free at the same time.

What I do most of the time, when I don't need much detailing, is to use several programs, each for doing pieces of the work. This is a typical unix-like approach (use several simple, reusable programs to do separate tasks, instead of having one all-in-one program) that in my opinion could benefit much architecture workflows on linux.



I myself contribute with coding and documentation to a very interesting program (currently) named FreeCAD that could hopefully fit very well in the middle of the workflow, to rework data coming from 3D into precise construction drawings. It is in usable state already, but not for real production.



Note that FreeCAD is not at all aimed at becoming another autocad clone, and 2D drafting is only a temporary use I make of it. The plans for the future of FreeCAD include much more powerful things such as parametric modeling, automatic sectionning, or structural analysis.
Today I still use a mix of other programs, such as autocad, qcad or sketchup. I also use different utilities and convertors to manipulate different file formats, like RealCadd converter or Varicad viewer.

The same way as the data you export from a 3D program to a 2D app, the way the data is formatted is the most important point, not the program you used to make it. If you modeled your building correctly, you will have good 2D data, easy to rework in 2D. The same should apply to 2D data. If you build your technical drawings correctly, they will be easy to export to other programs for presentation work.

The presentation work in itself is also easy to do under linux, there are several programs able to import technical drawings and rework them, my favorite being inkscape:



I also use gimp a lot.

All this works quite well for short or limited architecture projects, like competitions or draft projects, but of course, not so well for more detailed work such as execution drawings. For that, we would need better tools for technical drawing. At the moment I don't know any that is strong enough to allow fast, efficient and beautiful work. But the way we draw architecture is slowly changing too, so maybe new solutions will begin to appear on the linux platform too.

And if you are interested in helping the situation to evolve quicker, there are many great open-source projects out there that could use your efforts, even if you are not a programmer. This is the case of most of the software I showed in this article.
Note: I wrote a sequel to this article, explaining how to get started with Linux...

in categories  architecture  works  projects  sketches  permalink:  273   posted on 31.10.2009 17:38
From Yorik
Esboços para uma casa

Aqui está uma proposta de casa que fiz com a Maíra um tempo atrás. Está baseada nos seguintes conceitos:
  1. Não há necessidade de construir 4 pavimentos, como pedido inicialmente. O terreno é bastante grande (760m²) para poder fazer algo mais baixo.
  2. Nos pareceu melhor adotar uma configuração de "páteo" (os cômodos em volta de um jardim central) em vez de "torre" (os cômodos empilhados), porque daqui alguns anos terão vizinhos e as fachadas da casa estarão olhando para as paredes dos vizinhos, e também para aproveitar melhor o terreno grande e o belo paisagismo que daria para fazer nele.
  3. Na região nordeste, devido ao calor, os cômodos mais agradáveis são os que ficam adossados ao solo, porque a inércia do solo mantém o frescor. Nos parece melhor usar esses lugares privilegiados para quartos do que para carros.
  4. O páteo pode virar um tipo de "vale verde", formando taludes com a terra retirada das escavações, reaproveitando ela.
  5. Trabalhando em meio-níveis, a gente consegue um projeto muito paisagístico com pouquíssimas escadas e que fica muito baixo (a cota máxima está em 4.50m em relação à rua)
Fizemos então alguns desenhos de uma solução que imaginamos para a casa:



Este é uma vista geral da proposta. Botamos muito foco na vegetação, porque o terreno é grande e representa uma oportunidade muito boa de fazer um projeto muito integrado à natureza. Os blocos que contem os diferentes cômodos são protegidos por lajes ou telhados verdes, e tudo se abre para dentro, em volta de um "vale verde" central. Os carros ficam simplesmente abrigados em baixo de uma cobertura, liberando os espaços mais interessantes para usos melhores.



A imagem acima mostra a implantação (a rua está a esquerda). 1 é a entrada dos carros, 2 o "vale verde", 3 a aba principal, 4 a cobertura para os carros



A imagem acima mostra a entrada, a cobertura para os carros (que pode ser leve, metálica ou madeira), e no fundo, a entrada da casa. Atras da cobertura dos carros aparece a "torre" com a suíte principal



Acima está a planta do térreo. 1 é o estacionamento coberto para 4 carros, 2 contém área de serviço, lavabo, etc, 3 é uma cozinha semi-fechada que dá no 4, sala de jantar e 5, sala de estar. Todos esses espaços estão na cota 0, ou seja no nível da rua. O 6 é um estar íntimo, situado meio-nível mais baixo (cota -1.50).



Acima está a planta do andar superior, situado na cota +1.50 (meio-nível para cima). O único espaço a este nível é a suíte principal (5). As janelas ficam em cima das coberturas 3 e 4, que podem também ser telhados verdes (alias, isso providenciaria uma isolação térmica fantástica)



Este é a planta do subsolo (nível -1 em relação à rua, ou +/- cota -2.50). 1, 3, 4 e 5 são quartos, 2 são banheiros e 6 é um espaço aberto de convivência. Se chega aqui passando pela sala íntima (n°6 na planta do térreo). Todos os espaços estão abertos para o "vale verde" e nenhum quarto olha diretamente num outro quarto. Os banheiros recebem luz e ventilação pelo teto (eles estão um pouco fora da projeção dos pavimentos superiores)



Este é a vista do "vale verde", com a sala intima + suíte principal a esquerda, o bloco principal com quartos, cozinha, salas de jantar e estar a direita. Entre os dois terão as escadas.

in categories  sketches  architecture  idsampa  projects  permalink:  226   posted on 30.09.2009 1:39
From Yorik

#idsampa 02: Transformar o minhocão em parque



Isto é uma ideia óbvia, que muitas outras pessoas já tiveram antes de mim, em São Paulo como em várias outras partes do mundo. O minhocão, para quem não vive em São Paulo, é um viaduto implantado de maneira totalmente catastrófica em volta do centro da cidade nos anos 70, destruindo o tecido social de vários bairros. Hoje, forma um "atalho" entre o leste e oeste da cidade, porque permite evitar o centro. Forma, diríamos, um micro-rodoanel.

A questão é de saber o que aconteceria se o minhocão não existisse. Entupiria o centro da cidade, como se temia na época em que foi criado? Eu me pergunto se ao contrário o minhocão não induz mais circulação, e que sem ele o fluxo de carros, em vez de se descarregar nas ruas do centro da cidade, não diminuiria, simplesmente.

O que fazer com o minhocão inutilizado então? Destruí-lo seria gastar mais dinheiro em vão, então porque não transformar ele em um parque gigantesco? O centro da cidade seria transformado, ganharia um cinto verde. Abrindo buracos e escadas, daria até para iluminar um pouco a avenida em baixo. E o prazer de circular a pé e de bicicleta no minhocão no domingo, que aconselho muito provar se você não conhece, seria permitido todos os dias.

Onde já foi feito algo similar:
  • New York: Um antiga linha de trem elevada foi reconvertida em parque suspendido

  • Singapore: O centro da cidade passou por um processo incrível de limpeza e incentivo ecológico, e é hoje a megacidade mais "verde" do mundo.

in categories  opensource  architecture  permalink:  216   posted on 18.09.2009 21:39
From Yorik
Architecture composition with blender
This is an article I wrote after a (frustrated) competition project Maíra and me made some time ago. It describes how blender can be used as a fantastic architecture creation platform. Enjoy!

in categories  architecture  projects  idsampa  sketches  permalink:  210   posted on 13.09.2009 20:10
From Yorik

#IDSAMPA 01: Conversão das marginais em praias




Totalmente absurdo? Impossível? Talvez... Mas nunca pensou que talvez, colocar mais 12 faixas nas marginais não vai fluidificar transito, mas simplesmente aumentar o número de carros nas marginais? E que os rios estão neste estado não tanto porque administrações, indústrias e cidadões despejam alegremente seus esgotos dentro, mas porque, já que não é possível chegar perto, não despertam nenhum sentimento de apropriação e portanto são considerados como esgoto por todo mundo?
Portanto, talvez retirar as vias marginais, em vez de duplica-las, poderia, quem sabe, ter o efeito inverso? Talvez não ia entupir o resto das avenidas da cidade, porque ia forçar os motoristas a repensar seus hábitos? Talvez ter praia em São Paulo ia ser um evento tão incrível que consiga alcançar os municípios a montante e incitar eles a também iniciar operações de limpeza do rio? E quem sabe, até os iredutíveis motoristas ficariam tão encantados que perdoariam a retirada das marginais...

Onde já foi feito algo parecido:
  • Zürich: Pode beber água de qualquer rio da cidade, e em toda a cidade tem decks, piscinas e outras instalações para as pessoas poder tomar banho
  • Seoul: Limparam o rio principal da cidade, que estava num estado próximoao Tietê...
  • Paris: Fizeram um parque gigantesco (La Villette), em cima de uma área pos-industrial totalmente desgastada.

in categories  architecture  projects  permalink:  209   posted on 13.09.2009 19:29
From Yorik

OpenFort 400 competition entry



This is our entry for the OpenFort400 competition in Amsterdam. The winners were announced today, and, as half-expected, we didn't win Anyway, the project was great fun to develop. We tried basically to reflect upon density and stacking, and tried to invert the traditional development path of typical ancient european cities like Amsterdam, by introducing "infectious" spots that force urban development to react and take innovative paths, which is a role that favelas in south-american cities could have, if better understood.

Anyway, here are a couple of images of the project, enjoy! The pdf and blender files are available for your remixing pleasure.


















in categories  projects  architecture  permalink:  31   posted on 15.02.2009 19:10
From Yorik
Our last competition project: A building for the architecture faculty of the Delft University. We made the project at 3, Maíra, Sander and me.



At first we thought we had absolutely no chance at all to win the project, so we'd better start on something that would serve us as an experience, instead of trying to win something. This allowed us not only to epurate completely everything of the surrounding "communication stuff", but also to explore all those interesting connections between graphics and architecture, and what comes before what.

We always use to think architecture like "we design spaces, then we draw those spaces", but of course, the very line we draw is actually very often defining, or creating a space. So we think spaces, then draw lines to draw them, and those lines create their own boundaries, and we "see" a space "we" created. In this project we got really crazy with those things, we drew things, we "saw" space in them, then drew those spaces, then the very drawing gave other, unexpected shapes and spaces, etc, etc. I don't know if there is something understandable in the result, but we had a fantastic experience and great discussions!

in categories  opensource  architecture  permalink:  3   posted on 05.01.2009 9:17
From Yorik
Architecture guide of São Paulo
I am beginning a São Paulo architecture guide on Google maps. It is public, so everyone can add stuff there. Enjoy!



View Larger Map

in categories  projects  architecture  permalink:  28   posted on 23.06.2008 21:48
From Yorik

San Isidro Housing Competition



This project for the Arquitectum San Isidro Lofts competition is a study of stacking and opening. It is an attempt to organize, in a straight and rigorous bounding box, a rich and complex life quality and social interaction. All appartments are completely unique and offer huge space differences. All have wide terraces, gardens and cross ventilation, and the whole complex provides additional common gardens and a roof deck with a swimming pool.

The vertical common circulation is thought to be the trunk that unites the whole social life of the building, by creating a serie of events, places, openings that incentivates the active use of those public spaces by the people living in the building.


















in categories  projects  architecture  permalink:  29   posted on 23.06.2008 21:46
From Yorik

Aomori Northern Style Housing Competition



S P R E A D

the heavy influence of surrounding environment, heavy street front, giant buildings and on the other side smaller-scale neighbouring life conduct life structures to invade all possible connections to light, sun, and neighbourhood buzz.

S O L A R P L A N T

extreme winter conditions turn direct sun exposure a capital point. living units are thermic captors.circulations are radiators.

P A R A D O X

contemporary city life is like being part of a movie passing at double speed. we want the possibility to place our own marks and live a contrasted life, one day in a protected cocoon, one day standing in the fresh morning wind.

B U F F E R I N G

as today strict definitions tend to fade out, do the limits between all things fragment into many layers. our human behaviour also needs high-level layering between private, common, or public activities.

S T R E E T A R T

the public level is the coralian structure where marine life develops. it supports currents, connects neighbour life to large street side and give inhabitants an intimate connection to the city. also, the public space is everybody's space. there all express, all listen, all watch.

B I O M A C H I N E

the common living environment is a metastructure for the individual body and behaviour. we're talking of heart, veins, muscles, respiration and tactile organs, skin, fat and pores.




















in categories  architecture  projects  permalink:  30   posted on 23.06.2008 21:40
From Yorik

Moscow City Hall Competition

Pattern 01: Paradox

The city, the site and the human activities concerned by the project are environments in mutation. Building a project is dropping a mark in the city which will be a photo of the human landscape we are in today. The Moscow City Administrative Complex is driven by this paradox. We need to freeze something that can not be frozen. This paradox will appear in every aspect of the project. The complex breaks physical links with immediate surrounding, but grows from Moscow's mother, the Moskva river.

Pattern 02: Simplicity

The incertitude of the future, human as well as physical leads to think the structure and space as flexible, to host activities of today and tomorrow. 3 blocks in free-floor plan, supported by a logical array of columns and beams. Each block has its services and circulation strip in the centre. Spaces are open and any configuration is possible, being horizontal, vertical or even diagonal.

Pattern 03: Complexity

The Moscow City Administrative Complex is a mini-city, which auto-organizes. Activities change, departments move, building extents, connections open and close. The blood inputs of this growing organism are variated, can be closed, moved, bridged. There is no front, no back. All sides are the main facade. The visitor, helped by color-coded movable signalization, orient himself by constantly being able to understand his tridimensional coordinates in the complex, as the open spaces and facades permit large views of the structure.

Pattern 04: Organism

The building behaves as a living being, using the construction as marine life develops on coralian structure. High-density working zones follow open greenhouses and decompression spaces. Views from one part on another, on the city, are numerous and always different. The communication, the people, the technics flow. Open green spaces distribute air and light to inner spaces. Seasons rule the life of the project and the people inside, as the sun angle changes, plants cycle, water freezes...

Pattern 05: Technics

The complex is a northern organism and therefore centralized on sunlight. Its outer skin is almost completely made of glass. “Crystals” inserted into the concrete structure diffuse light in deeper parts and gather used air. A natural circulation occurs. Technics, fluids and human circulations use the center strips as a radiator, and glass spaces to communicate with other parts of the complex. The open space on the expocentre side gives an opening in the density of a busy part of the city and is ready to support future extensions of the complex.

Pattern 06: Rendering




















in categories  projects  architecture  permalink:  27   posted on 23.06.2008 20:43
From Yorik

Liverpool-Leeds Canal Footbridge Competition



The Liverpool-Leeds Canal Footbridge competition asked to propose a footbridge in Leeds, on the canal that goes all the way to Liverpool. The bridge should connect two ancient industrial zones, now being reconverted into housing. We tried to propose a strong industrial, sculptural object, that would act as a walkable monument. The new housing neighbourhoods risk to rapidly wipe out the industrial past, and we tried to propose an idea that would bridge not only the two sides of the canal, but also both past and future.

This bridge aims at giving a new meaning to this strategic point between a new part of the city and its mainland. A metallic composition, raising from its concrete base, deploys upon the canal and reaches the other side, bowing gently to the newcomer, inviting him to come discover its functionning. Along the path, the structure evolves, the forces bend, and the efforts in it lead its lines.
A typical boat setup: Amast supports a horizontal beam, which in turn give birth to a second-level sequence, a rib cage where each element carries and locks the next one. Past a certain point, the elements liberate themselves from the securing beam and do by themselves the last span. The whole transformation happens within the strict limits of a triangulated array of cables, which control the game and put everything under tension.












in categories  architecture  projects  permalink:  26   posted on 23.06.2008 20:41
From Yorik

Stockholm Public Library Competition



The Stockholm Library is a magnificent building designed by Gunnar Asplund in 1928. The competition aimed at extending the building, which is now too small to contain the collections of the library, and adding new multimedia sections. The site includes the Asplund building itself, and 3 posterior buildins on the side, also classified as heritage buildings, but of much less interest.

THE PROJECT

This project, more than a library extension, is a library entrance. It is a library that invites you to curiosity, have a look before you try, come down, enjoy, explore, feel part of the spaces an the histories, and make your own path. There, at the end, the temple and its secrets are waiting for you.
This project also marks a moment between past and future. Some things are recycled, others make room for an unknown future. It allows you to look outside and feel that moment.

THE SPACE

The new library is one single open space. Its internal separations deviate the path, not the view. It has many different spaces to explore, big open courtyards, low galleries, bridges. But you never forget that you are underground, in the basements of a city, where many secrets are hidden.

MEDIA AND PEOPLE

The space, although fragmented, is one continuity. The separations between activities are minimal and inner organisation develops accordingly, minimising transitions. Visitors and staff are using the same space, making comunication friendlier and easier.

BIOCLIMATISM

The project has a complete and optimal bioclimatic behaviour. The glass roofs receive sun almost all the day, low floor heights give a compact air volume, fresh air enters the project from lower points and travels freely against the roofs ensuring good control over temperature. Plants in the central areas also help to normalize humidity.

THE PUBLIC SPACE

As the new library is located between the Asplund park, the hill, Odenplan and Odengatan, it also gathers these spaces and make them part of a common whole.
The roof of the new library forms an entire public space that can be used in many ways, since the main structure is dimensioned to be able to receive temporary constructions. But its best use is simply to let people walk around, enjoy the sun when it comes and let everyone invent its own scenario. Some areas are walkable, some not, but even where you can't walk there are things to see.

THE GRASS

Between the concrete slabs, high grass and native plants from the Stockholm bay are growing, occupying the space. They form "rooms" on the slabs, catch the wind and the noises, and make the roof change over the seasons.

THE HILL

The roof also forms a new base to the hill, freeing it from being hidden behind the buildings and giving it back to the city. The roof is an invitation and an encouragement to climb the hill. Several paths and stairs are created, and if you prefer, the tube gently drives you half-way to the top.

THE ANNEXES

The annexes gain a new life in the library. Their entrances are preserved, and they are still used as a library. But where they occupied the view and the open space, they now work underground, their walls store heat from above, and they are the open places in the library, where you can come read a book or enjoy the natural light and heat.

THE STRUCTURE

The spaces are organized by a simple and regular structural grid. One of the annexes will be reinforced underneath, and the concrete floors help stabilize the whole construction and link the existing parts with the new ones. The roof structure is hybrid, mixing wood and steel, concrete and glass. The tube itself, finally, is meant to be an engineering challenge on its own, independant from the rest.

CONNEXIONS

The new library is a big hub, welcoming people from all directions. You can enter by the Asplund building, the Asplund park, the hill, the subway, Odengatan, Gyldngatan, the Diligentia building or even by the roof.
Inside the library, open and naturally lit areas alternate with darker and lower sections. Space dilatations and compressions show naturally the way to go in an out, and the path to the Asplund building, by the basement, is like a initiation ritual before entering the temple.

MORE ABOUT THE TUBE

The tube is the link between all the parts of the project, between the project and the city, and as the visible part of the new library, it is our humble contemporary contribution to the universe ruled by the Asplund library. The tube cleans the space, making the existing building occupy the place it deserves.
With a smooth 4.5% inclination, the tube is a multifunctional space, housing circulation, temporary exhibitions space, bar, visitors activities, sightseeing terrace and, as it is located exactly along the East-West axis, as an educational tool and an extension of the observatory. By this the tube contributes to keep the humanistic, academic nature of the whole observatory hill area.
The tube also has bioclimatic function, as it can be used to bring in fresh air from below and to help extract hot air from the roof.